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Disease relevance of Terminalia

  • We used the agar dilution method to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Terminalia macroptera leaf (Tml) extract against nine reference and clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, including penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant and -susceptible strains [1].
  • The antimutagenic effect of benzene, chloroform, acetone and methanol fractions from Terminalia arjuna, a well-known medicinal plant, was determined against Acid Black dye, 2-aminofluorene (2AF) and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) in TA98 Frameshift mutagen tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium [2].
  • Antimutagenicity of supercritical CO2 extracts of Terminalia catappa leaves and cytotoxicity of the extracts to human hepatoma cells [3].
  • Examination of the EtOH extract of the fruiting bodies of Terminalia chebula RETZ. led to the isolation of two potent antimicrobial substances against even methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus [4].

High impact information on Terminalia

  • Mutations in the BicaudalD (BicD) gene lead to a global reorganization of the Drosophila body pattern such that the head, thoracic, and anterior abdominal segments are replaced by posterior abdominal segments and terminalia [5].
  • Finally, the complex final form of the head and terminalia derive from earlier simple subdivision of these areas into developmental fields by engrailed [6].
  • However, combinations of weak loss-of-function TAF250 alleles survive to adulthood and reveal requirements for TAF250 during ovary, eye, ocelli, wing, bristle, and terminalia development as well as overall growth of the fly [7].
  • This pattern of wg transcription is discussed with particular regard to the segmentation of the terminalia [8].
  • A bioactivity-guided fractionation of Terminalia bellerica fruit extract led to the isolation of several pure compounds which retained the original activity of the crude extract for CCK and GABA receptors, with the exception of compound B3EA-6, which exhibited high affinity for Neurokinin receptor (Substance K approximately NK-1) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Terminalia


Biological context of Terminalia


Anatomical context of Terminalia

  • ATP assay guided chromatographic fractionation of the extract yielded ellagic acid, 2,4-chebulyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (a new natural product), and chebulinic acid which were tested by ATP assay on HOS-1 cell line in comparison to three known antigrowth phenolics of Terminalia, gallic acid, ethyl gallate, luteolin, and tannic acid [15].

Associations of Terminalia with chemical compounds


Gene context of Terminalia


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Terminalia


  1. In vitro anti-Neisseria gonorrhoeae activity of Terminalia macroptera leaves. Silva, O., Ferreira, E., Vaz Pato, M., Caniça, M., Gomes, E.T. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Antimutagenic activities of acetone and methanol fractions of Terminalia arjuna. Kaur, K., Arora, S., Kumar, S., Nagpal, A. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Antimutagenicity of supercritical CO2 extracts of Terminalia catappa leaves and cytotoxicity of the extracts to human hepatoma cells. Ko, T.F., Weng, Y.M., Lin, S.B., Chiou, R.Y. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Extraction and purification of effective antimicrobial constituents of Terminalia chebula RETS. against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Sato, Y., Oketani, H., Singyouchi, K., Ohtsubo, T., Kihara, M., Shibata, H., Higuti, T. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Structure of the Drosophila BicaudalD protein and its role in localizing the the posterior determinant nanos. Wharton, R.P., Struhl, G. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Development of embryonic pattern in D. melanogaster as revealed by accumulation of the nuclear engrailed protein. DiNardo, S., Kuner, J.M., Theis, J., O'Farrell, P.H. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. TAF250 is required for multiple developmental events in Drosophila. Wassarman, D.A., Aoyagi, N., Pile, L.A., Schlag, E.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Localization of transcripts from the wingless gene in whole Drosophila embryos. Baker, N.E. Development (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Modern drug development from traditional medicinal plants using radioligand receptor-binding assays. Misra, R. Medicinal research reviews. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Modulatory effect of phenolic fractions of Terminalia arjuna on the mutagenicity in Ames assay. Kaur, K., Arora, S., Kumar, S., Nagpal, A. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of engrailed in the genital disc of Drosophila melanogaster. Epper, F., Sánchez, L. Dev. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. PVF1/PVR signaling and apoptosis promotes the rotation and dorsal closure of the Drosophila male terminalia. Macías, A., Romero, N.M., Martín, F., Suárez, L., Rosa, A.L., Morata, G. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunosuppressive effects of gallic acid and chebulagic acid on CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. Hamada, S., Kataoka, T., Woo, J.T., Yamada, A., Yoshida, T., Nishimura, T., Otake, N., Nagai, K. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunomodulatory activity of triphala on neutrophil functions. Srikumar, R., Jeya Parthasarathy, N., Sheela Devi, R. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of Terminalia chebula retz. fruit. Saleem, A., Husheem, M., Härkönen, P., Pihlaja, K. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Tannin constituents of Terminalia glaucescens. Koudou, J., Roblot, G., Wylde, R. Planta Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Antimutagenicity of hydrolyzable tannins from Terminalia chebula in Salmonella typhimurium. Kaur, S., Grover, I.S., Singh, M., Kaur, S. Mutat. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark in an in vivo model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Karthikeyan, K., Bai, B.R., Gauthaman, K., Sathish, K.S., Devaraj, S.N. Life Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. RP-LC determination of oleane derivatives in Terminalia arjuna. Singh, D.V., Verma, R.K., Singh, S.C., Gupta, M.M. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Embryonic head involution and rotation of male terminalia require the Drosophila locus head involution defective. Abbott, M.K., Lengyel, J.A. Genetics (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Chemopreventive effect of punicalagin, a novel tannin component isolated from Terminalia catappa, on H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Chen, P.S., Li, J.H. Toxicol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Reproductive isolation and morphogenetic evolution in Drosophila analyzed by breakage of ethological barriers. Sánchez, L., Santamaria, P. Genetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Antioxidant activity of Terminalia arjuna bark extract on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. Sivalokanathan, S., Ilayaraja, M., Balasubramanian, M.P. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Ethnobotanical and antimicrobial investigation on some species of Terminalia and Combretum (Combretaceae) growing in Tanzania. Fyhrquist, P., Mwasumbi, L., Haeggström, C.A., Vuorela, H., Hiltunen, R., Vuorela, P. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Efficacy of Terminalia arjuna in chronic stable angina: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study comparing Terminalia arjuna with isosorbide mononitrate. Bharani, A., Ganguli, A., Mathur, L.K., Jamra, Y., Raman, P.G. Indian heart journal. (2002) [Pubmed]
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