The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

DNA Shuffling

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of DNA Shuffling


High impact information on DNA Shuffling


Biological context of DNA Shuffling


Associations of DNA Shuffling with chemical compounds

  • Seven rounds of DNA shuffling and colony screening on chromogenic fucose substrates were performed, using 10,000 colonies per round [14].
  • Repeated rounds of DNA shuffling and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis followed by genetic selection resulted in mutant GlnRS enzymes that efficiently acylate the engineered tRNA with glutamine in vitro [15].
  • One candidate VL domain-specific for B7.1 was affinity matured by simultaneous randomisation of all CDR loops using DNA shuffling with degenerate CDR-spiking oligonucleotides [16].
  • After three rounds of DNA shuffling and screening, mutants were isolated which possessed a 300-fold increased activity against guaiacol and an up to 1000-fold increased specificity for this substrate relative to that for the natural substrate [17].
  • A derivative of the TEM-1 beta-lactamase producing clinically significant levels of resistance to ceftazidime and beta-lactamase inhibitors in the presence of penicillins was generated following five rounds of DNA shuffling and selection [18].

Gene context of DNA Shuffling

  • We describe directed molecular evolution of CD80 genes derived from human, orangutan, rhesus monkey, baboon, cat, cow, and rabbit by DNA shuffling and screening [19].
  • To select for chimeric Pgp with an altered resistance profile, DNA shuffling between the homologous but not identical drug interacting transmembrane domains 5 and 6 of human MDR1 and mouse mdr1a was used [20].
  • DNA shuffling of mutations from the various screens and recombination onto a T169E-encoding 3' end yielded CDC28 mutants with strong T169E suppression [21].
  • To understand the molecular basis by which diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an ERbeta-selective ligand, is able to discriminate between the two ERs, we examined its activity on ER mutants and chimeric constructs generated by DNA shuffling [22].
  • DNA shuffling method for generating estrogen receptor alpha and beta chimeras in yeast [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DNA Shuffling

  • Directed evolution of epoxide hydrolase from A. radiobacter toward higher enantioselectivity by error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling [4].


  1. Enhanced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by directed evolution of biphenyl dioxygenase. Kumamaru, T., Suenaga, H., Mitsuoka, M., Watanabe, T., Furukawa, K. Nat. Biotechnol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Rapid evolution of beta-glucuronidase specificity by saturation mutagenesis of an active site loop. Geddie, M.L., Matsumura, I. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Antibody scFv fragments without disulfide bonds made by molecular evolution. Proba, K., Wörn, A., Honegger, A., Plückthun, A. J. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Directed evolution of epoxide hydrolase from A. radiobacter toward higher enantioselectivity by error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling. van Loo, B., Spelberg, J.H., Kingma, J., Sonke, T., Wubbolts, M.G., Janssen, D.B. Chem. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Plasmid-assisted molecular breeding: new technique for enhanced biodegradation of persistent toxic chemicals. Kellogg, S.T., Chatterjee, D.K., Chakrabarty, A.M. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular breeding of carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Schmidt-Dannert, C., Umeno, D., Arnold, F.H. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Breeding of retroviruses by DNA shuffling for improved stability and processing yields. Powell, S.K., Kaloss, M.A., Pinkstaff, A., McKee, R., Burimski, I., Pensiero, M., Otto, E., Stemmer, W.P., Soong, N.W. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular evolution of an arsenate detoxification pathway by DNA shuffling. Crameri, A., Dawes, G., Rodriguez, E., Silver, S., Stemmer, W.P. Nat. Biotechnol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Modifying the stereochemistry of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction by directed evolution. Williams, G.J., Domann, S., Nelson, A., Berry, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased thermal resistance and modification of the catalytic properties of a beta-glucosidase by random mutagenesis and in vitro recombination. Arrizubieta, M.J., Polaina, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Different structural requirements for plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) during latency transition and proteinase inhibition as evidenced by phage-displayed hypermutated PAI-1 libraries. Stoop, A.A., Eldering, E., Dafforn, T.R., Read, R.J., Pannekoek, H. J. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Tuning biphenyl dioxygenase for extended substrate specificity. Brühlmann, F., Chen, W. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Random DNA fragmentation with endonuclease V: application to DNA shuffling. Miyazaki, K. Nucleic Acids Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Directed evolution of a fucosidase from a galactosidase by DNA shuffling and screening. Zhang, J.H., Dawes, G., Stemmer, W.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Engineering a tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase for the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo. Liu, D.R., Magliery, T.J., Pastrnak, M., Schultz, P.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Building novel binding ligands to B7.1 and B7.2 based on human antibody single variable light chain domains. van den Beucken, T., van Neer, N., Sablon, E., Desmet, J., Celis, L., Hoogenboom, H.R., Hufton, S.E. J. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Directed molecular evolution of cytochrome c peroxidase. Iffland, A., Tafelmeyer, P., Saudan, C., Johnsson, K. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Mutant TEM beta-lactamase producing resistance to ceftazidime, ampicillins, and beta-lactamase inhibitors. Vakulenko, S., Golemi, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Chimeric co-stimulatory molecules that selectively act through CD28 or CTLA-4 on human T cells. Lazetic, S., Leong, S.R., Chang, J.C., Ong, R., Dawes, G., Punnonen, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Analysis of random recombination between human MDR1 and mouse mdr1a cDNA in a pHaMDR-dihydrofolate reductase bicistronic expression system. Shoshani, T., Zhang, S., Dey, S., Pastan, I., Gottesman, M.M. Mol. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic analysis of the relationship between activation loop phosphorylation and cyclin binding in the activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc28p cyclin-dependent kinase. Cross, F.R., Levine, K. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Molecular basis for the subtype discrimination of the estrogen receptor-beta-selective ligand, diarylpropionitrile. Sun, J., Baudry, J., Katzenellenbogen, J.A., Katzenellenbogen, B.S. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. DNA shuffling method for generating estrogen receptor alpha and beta chimeras in yeast. Sun, J., Katzenellenbogen, J.A., Zhao, H., Katzenellenbogen, B.S. BioTechniques (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities