The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Acylate     (phenyl-propan-2- yloxycarbonyl-amino)...

Synonyms: Acylate-1, LS-50844, BRN 2944447, AC1L2FQ2, 4212-94-6, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Acylate

  • An Ehrlich ascites extract was shown in these in vitro studies to acylate Escherichia coli tRNA with 13 amino acids, and the ascites extract was used in place of the corresponding 13 E. coli aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases [1].
  • MICs of a set of cephalosporins against a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens showed no strong correlations with the rate at which these inhibitors acylate or are deacylated by beta-lactam-sensitive DD-peptidases excreted by Streptomyces sp. strain R61 and Actinomadura sp. strain R39 [2].
  • When expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells by a baculovirus vector, the hemagglutinin of fowl plague virus has been found to contain palmitic acid in covalent hydroxylamine-sensitive linkage, indicating that these cells have the capacity to acylate foreign proteins at cysteine residues [3].

High impact information on Acylate

  • All three mischarging mutant enzymes still retain a certain degree of tRNA specificity; in vivo they acylate supE glutaminyl tRNA (tRNA(Gln] and supF tRNA(Tyr) but not a number of other suppressor tRNA's. These genetic experiments define two positions in GlnRS where amino acid substitution results in a relaxed specificity of tRNA discrimination [4].
  • Although the synthetases are widely conserved through evolution, aminoacylation of a given tRNA is often system specific-a synthetase from one source will not acylate its cognate tRNA from another [5].
  • (iii) Mitochondria from a mutant with a disrupted chromosomal copy of MSD1 are unable to acylate mitochondrial aspartyl-tRNA [6].
  • When B. subtilis, A. fulgidus, and human TrpRS were used to acylate these tRNA(Trp), two distinct preference profiles regarding the discriminator base of different tRNA(Trp) substrates were found: G>A>U>C for B. subtilis TrpRS, and A>C>U>G for A. fulgidus and human TrpRS [7].
  • In contrast, a discriminating AspRS cannot acylate tRNA(Asn) [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Acylate


Biological context of Acylate

  • We did not detect HlyC in cell lysates from hlyC mutants with different abilities to acylate pro-HlyA, suggesting that the degradation of HlyC is not related to the HlyA acylation process [11].
  • We postulate that the SLC1 suppressor allele encodes a variant enzyme with an altered substrate specificity that enables it to use a C26 in place of a C16/18 fatty acid precursor to acylate the sn-2 position of inositol-containing glycerolipids [12].
  • Extracts of strains harboring msbB+ bearing plasmids acylate (Kdo)2-(lauroyl)-lipid IVA very rapidly compared with wild type [13].
  • This gene confers a respiratory competent phenotype and restores the mutant's ability to acylate the mitochondrial lysine tRNA [14].
  • This hypothesis explains both the relative potencies of these compounds and their differential abilities to acylate the TBPS binding site [15].

Anatomical context of Acylate

  • Resting human neutrophils acylate 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-GPC; lyso-PAF) specifically with arachidonate (AA); upon stimulation, however, the specificity is lost and other fatty acid residues are added [16].
  • Rabbit alveolar macrophage microsomes were found to acylate 1-[3H]alkyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC) (lyso platelet-activating factor) in the absence of any cofactors, indicating the presence of transacylation activity [17].
  • These findings indicate that mucosal PLA2 activity increases during intestinal maturation and that the mucosa acquires the ability to acylate and deacylate lysoPC when it is 'closed' to macromolecules [18].
  • In contrast to microsomes from rat liver, about 70% of the product with the 1- and 2-monooleoylglycerol ethers was triradylglycerol, suggesting that the diacylglycerol acyltransferase from chick liver can acylate acyl, alkylglycerols [19].
  • Diacylglycerol acyltransferase and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase had similar dependences on palmitoyl-CoA in both liver and fibroblasts; thus it did not appear that acyl-CoAs, when present at low concentrations, would be preferentially used to acylate lysophospholipids [20].

Associations of Acylate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Acylate

  • Amino-acylation of wild-type mitochondrial tRNAs with a mitochondrial extract from mst1 mutants fail to acylate tRNAThr1 (anticodon: 3'-GAU-5') but show normal acylation of tRNAThr2 (anticodon: 3'-UGU-5') [26].
  • E. coli ArgRS can acylate only its cognate E. coli tRNA [27].
  • Single-chain TPA (recSCTPA) has been found to acylate more slowly than its two-chain counterpart and to exhibit a higher degree of turnover of the acyl-enzyme with this reagent [28].
  • Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in human plasma has been shown to acylate lysolecithin to lecithin in presence of low density lipoprotein (LDL) [29].
  • An enzymic mechanism for the conversion of OA and DTX-2 seems to be implicated in some kind of detoxification process because the percentage of esters increases with the toxin amount ingested by the bivalve and there is some degree of selectivity as DTX-2 seems more difficult to acylate [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acylate

  • The use of HPLC has established that chickens possess unexpected metabolic abilities to acylate, deacylate, reduce, and oxidize carotenoids [31].


  1. DNA-directed in vitro synthesis of beta-galactosidase. Purification and characterization of stimulatory factors in an ascites extract. Kung, H.F., Redfield, B., Weissbach, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Lack of relevance of kinetic parameters for exocellular DD-peptidases to cephalosporin MICs. Boyd, D.B., Ott, J.L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Retarded processing of influenza virus hemagglutinin in insect cells. Kuroda, K., Veit, M., Klenk, H.D. Virology (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Structural basis for misaminoacylation by mutant E. coli glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes. Perona, J.J., Swanson, R.N., Rould, M.A., Steitz, T.A., Söll, D. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Translocation within the acceptor helix of a major tRNA identity determinant. Lovato, M.A., Chihade, J.W., Schimmel, P. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Homology of aspartyl- and lysyl-tRNA synthetases. Gampel, A., Tzagoloff, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Recognition by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases of discriminator base on tRNATrp from three biological domains. Guo, Q., Gong, Q., Tong, K.L., Vestergaard, B., Costa, A., Desgres, J., Wong, M., Grosjean, H., Zhu, G., Wong, J.T., Xue, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Evolutionary divergence of the archaeal aspartyl-tRNA synthetases into discriminating and nondiscriminating forms. Tumbula-Hansen, D., Feng, L., Toogood, H., Stetter, K.O., Söll, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Macromolecular synthesis in Streptomyces antibioticus: in vitro systems for aminoacylation and translation from young and old cells. Jones, G.H. J. Bacteriol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Isolation and properties of spiramycin I 3-hydroxyl acylase from Streptomyces and ambofaciens. Omura, S., Ikeda, H., Kitao, C. J. Biochem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. In vivo proteolytic degradation of the Escherichia coli acyltransferase HlyC. Guzman-Verri, C., Chaves-Olarte, E., García, F., Arvidson, S., Moreno, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. A suppressor gene that enables Saccharomyces cerevisiae to grow without making sphingolipids encodes a protein that resembles an Escherichia coli fatty acyltransferase. Nagiec, M.M., Wells, G.B., Lester, R.L., Dickson, R.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Function of the Escherichia coli msbB gene, a multicopy suppressor of htrB knockouts, in the acylation of lipid A. Acylation by MsbB follows laurate incorporation by HtrB. Clementz, T., Zhou, Z., Raetz, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Structure and evolution of a group of related aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Gatti, D.L., Tzagoloff, A. J. Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Novel site-directed affinity ligands for GABA-gated chloride channels: synthesis, characterization, and molecular modeling of 1-(isothiocyanatophenyl)-4-tert-butyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octanes . de Costa, B.R., Lewin, A.H., Rice, K.C., Skolnick, P., Schoenheimer, J.A. J. Med. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Enzymatic studies of lyso platelet-activating factor acylation in human neutrophils and changes upon stimulation. Venable, M.E., Olson, S.C., Nieto, M.L., Wykle, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Transacylation of lyso platelet-activating factor and other lysophospholipids by macrophage microsomes. Distinct donor and acceptor selectivities. Sugiura, T., Masuzawa, Y., Nakagawa, Y., Waku, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Development of phospholipase A2 and lysophosphatidylcholine metabolising enzyme activities in the neonatal rat intestine. Tagesson, C., Telemo, E., Ekström, G., Weström, B. Gut (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase: ontogeny and characterization of an activity associated with the chick embryo. Sansbury, K., Millington, D.S., Coleman, R.A. J. Lipid Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Triacsin C blocks de novo synthesis of glycerolipids and cholesterol esters but not recycling of fatty acid into phospholipid: evidence for functionally separate pools of acyl-CoA. Igal, R.A., Wang, P., Coleman, R.A. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Engineering a tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase for the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in vivo. Liu, D.R., Magliery, T.J., Pastrnak, M., Schultz, P.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Reaction of azapeptides with human leukocyte elastase and porcine pancreatic elastase. New inhibitors and active site titrants. Powers, J.C., Boone, R., Carroll, D.L., Gupton, B.F., Kam, C.M., Nishino, N., Sakamoto, M., Tuhy, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. The firA gene of Escherichia coli encodes UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase. The third step of endotoxin biosynthesis. Kelly, T.M., Stachula, S.A., Raetz, C.R., Anderson, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Crystal structures of thrombin complexed to a novel series of synthetic inhibitors containing a 5,5-trans-lactone template. Jhoti, H., Cleasby, A., Reid, S., Thomas, P.J., Weir, M., Wonacott, A. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Metaphit-induced audiogenic seizures in mice: II. Studies on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, GABA, and sodium channel receptors and on the disposition of metaphit in the brain. Lipovac, M.N., Debler, E.A., Zlokovic, B.V., Jacobson, A.E., Rice, K.C., de Costa, B., Selmeci, G., Chi, L., Reith, M.E. Epilepsia (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Characterization of a yeast nuclear gene (MST1) coding for the mitochondrial threonyl-tRNA1 synthetase. Pape, L.K., Koerner, T.J., Tzagoloff, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. A single base substitution in the variable pocket of yeast tRNA(Arg) eliminates species-specific aminoacylation. Liu, W., Huang, Y., Eriani, G., Gangloff, J., Wang, E., Wang, Y. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Reaction of tissue-type plasminogen activator with 4-methylumbelliferyl-p-guanidinobenzoate hydrochloride. Urano, T., Urano, S., Castellino, F.J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Increased lysolecithin acyltransferase activity in the plasma of type II hyperlipoproteinemic patients. Subbaiah, P.V., Ogilvie, J.T. Lipids (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Esters of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 in Portuguese bivalves related to human poisonings. Vale, P., Sampayo, M.A. Toxicon (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. The use of high-performance liquid chromatography for studying pigmentation. Hamilton, P.B. Poult. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities