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Disease relevance of Myanmar


High impact information on Myanmar

  • Association between protection against clinical malaria and antibodies to merozoite surface antigens in an area of hyperendemicity in Myanmar: complementarity between responses to merozoite surface protein 3 and the 220-kilodalton glutamate-rich protein [6].
  • The Commission also organized Epilepsy Teaching Courses in Vietnam, Indonesia, Myanmar, Mongolia, and Nepal to reinforce infrastructures of epilepsy management [7].
  • The highest deficit observed was 48% in two products (co-trimoxazole, Yong Fong, Myanmar; benzylpenicillin, China [city and manufacturer unknown]) [8].
  • Fission-track zircon age of the Eocene Pondaung Formation, Myanmar [9].
  • Two hundred and nine beta-thalassaemia (beta-Thal) alleles of 158 unrelated Myanmar patients (107 HbE-beta-Thal; 51 beta-Thal major) were analysed for beta-globin gene mutations [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Myanmar


Anatomical context of Myanmar


Associations of Myanmar with chemical compounds

  • Mefloquine susceptibility of P. falciparum in Myanmar, except for Mawlamyine, was consistent with clinical-parasitological efficacy in semi-immune people [16].
  • A field study was performed to determine the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in Myanmar children and to evaluate the possibility of using breath methane excretion to indicate lactose malabsorption in a field situation [17].
  • In the present study, we determined env (C2/V3) and gag (p17) subtypes of 25 specimens from central Myanmar (Mandalay) [18].
  • This study indicates that chloroquine is losing its efficacy against P. vivax in Myanmar [19].
  • Chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) are two first-line antimalarials used under the existing Indian National Drug Policy in the north-eastern region of India bordering several countries including Myanmar [20].

Gene context of Myanmar

  • In Thailand, the TNF-alpha 5'-flanking region shows biallelic polymorphic sites at nucleotides -238, -308, -857, -863, and -1031, and seven alleles have been identified in patients from Myanmar [21].
  • A total of 57 severe (45 males and 12 females) and 34 mild (five males and 29 females) cases of G6PD deficiency were detected among 855 subjects in Myanmar whilst 30 severe (25 males and five females) and 23 mild (six males and 17 females) cases were found among 1286 subjects in Indonesia [22].
  • The latter included alpha-thalassemia major (Myanmar variant), beta-thalassemia major (Myanmar variant), beta-thalassemia trait, HbEE and HbAE erythrocytes and two variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) deficiency [15].
  • In this study, we have analyzed genetic variations in the dhfr genes of clinical isolates of P. vivax (n=21) in Myanmar, to monitor antifolate resistance in this country [23].
  • The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Myanmar


  1. Myanmar dengue outbreak associated with displacement of serotypes 2, 3, and 4 by dengue 1. Thu, H.M., Lowry, K., Myint, T.T., Shwe, T.N., Han, A.M., Khin, K.K., Thant, K.Z., Thein, S., Aaskov, J. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Influence of blister packaging on the efficacy of artesunate + mefloquine over artesunate alone in community-based treatment of non-severe falciparum malaria in Myanmar. Shwe, T., Lwin, M., Aung, S. Bull. World Health Organ. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Strong association of a tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter allele with cerebral malaria in Myanmar. Ubalee, R., Suzuki, F., Kikuchi, M., Tasanor, O., Wattanagoon, Y., Ruangweerayut, R., Na-Bangchang, K., Karbwang, J., Kimura, A., Itoh, K., Kanda, T., Hirayama, K. Tissue Antigens (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Renal ischaemia, transient glomerular leak and acute renal tubular damage in patients envenomed by Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii siamensis) in Myanmar. Tin-Nu-Swe, n.u.l.l., Tin-Tun, n.u.l.l., Myint-Lwin, n.u.l.l., Thein-Than, n.u.l.l., Tun-Pe, n.u.l.l., Robertson, J.I., Leckie, B.J., Phillips, R.E., Warrell, D.A. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Hepatitis E virus: cDNA cloning and expression. Uchida, T., Suzuki, K., Hayashi, N., Iida, F., Hara, T., Oo, S.S., Wang, C.K., Shikata, T., Ichikawa, M., Rikihisa, T. Microbiol. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Association between protection against clinical malaria and antibodies to merozoite surface antigens in an area of hyperendemicity in Myanmar: complementarity between responses to merozoite surface protein 3 and the 220-kilodalton glutamate-rich protein. Soe, S., Theisen, M., Roussilhon, C., Aye, K.S., Druilhe, P. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Intercountry exchange and support within the region. Seino, M. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Quality control of antibiotics before the implementation of an STD program in Northern Myanmar. Prazuck, T., Falconi, I., Morineau, G., Bricard-Pacaud, V., Lecomte, A., Ballereau, F. Sexually transmitted diseases. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Fission-track zircon age of the Eocene Pondaung Formation, Myanmar. Tsubamoto, T., Takai, M., Shigehara, N., Egi, N., Tun, S.T., Aung, A.K., Maung, M., Danhara, T., Suzuki, H. J. Hum. Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. A wider molecular spectrum of beta-thalassaemia in Myanmar. Win, N., Harano, T., Harano, K., Myint, T.T., Mra, R., Okada, S., Shimono, K., Myint, A.A. Br. J. Haematol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparison of chloroquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, mefloquine and mefloquine-artesunate for the treatment of falciparum malaria in Kachin State, North Myanmar. Smithuis, F., Shahmanesh, M., Kyaw, M.K., Savran, O., Lwin, S., White, N.J. Trop. Med. Int. Health (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Stability of Russell's viper venom toxoid (lyophilized form) on storage. Aung, W., Hlaing, K.K., Kyaw, K.P., Win, M.M., Kyaw, A. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. An epidemiologic study of 70 oral cancer cases at the Institute of Dental Medicine, Yangon, Myanmar, 1985-1988. Sein, K., Maung, K.K., Aung, T.H. Odonto-stomatologie tropicale = Tropical dental journal. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Surveillance of imported bancroftian filariasis after two-year multiple-dose diethylcarbamazine treatment. Koyadun, S., Bhumiratana, A. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Laboratory and field comparisons of adenosine influx in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infected erythrocytes with genetic abnormalities from patients in Myanmar. Myint-Oo, n.u.l.l., O'Sullivan, W.J., Gero, A.M. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Myanmar to antimalarial drugs. Wongsrichanalai, C., Lin, K., Pang, L.W., Faiz, M.A., Noedl, H., Wimonwattrawatee, T., Laoboonchai, A., Kawamoto, F. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Ineffectiveness of breath methane excretion as a diagnostic test for lactose malabsorption. Myo-Khin, n.u.l.l., Bolin, T.D., Khin-Mar-Oo, n.u.l.l., Tin-Oo, n.u.l.l., Kyaw-Hla, S., Thein-Myint, T. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Emergence of new forms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 intersubtype recombinants in central Myanmar. Motomura, K., Kusagawa, S., Kato, K., Nohtomi, K., Lwin, H.H., Tun, K.M., Thwe, M., Oo, K.Y., Lwin, S., Kyaw, O., Zaw, M., Nagai, Y., Takebe, Y. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Development of resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar. Marlar-Than, n.u.l.l., Myat-Phone-Kyaw, n.u.l.l., Aye-Yu-Soe, n.u.l.l., Khaing-Khaing-Gyi, n.u.l.l., Ma-Sabai, n.u.l.l., Myint-Oo, n.u.l.l. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Evaluation of chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) therapy in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Indo-Myanmar border areas. Mohapatra, P.K., Prakash, A., Taison, K., Negmu, K., Gohain, A.C., Namchoom, N.S., Wange, D., Bhattacharyya, D.R., Goswami, B.K., Borgohain, B.K., Mahanta, J. Trop. Med. Int. Health (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic factors associated with development of cerebral malaria and fibrotic schistosomiasis. Hirayama, K. Korean J. Parasitol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Rapid epidemiologic assessment of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria-endemic areas in Southeast Asia using a novel diagnostic kit. Jalloh, A., Tantular, I.S., Pusarawati, S., Kawilarang, A.P., Kerong, H., Lin, K., Ferreira, M.U., Matsuoka, H., Arai, M., Kita, K., Kawamoto, F. Trop. Med. Int. Health (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Genetic variations of the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium vivax in Mandalay Division, Myanmar. Na, B.K., Lee, H.W., Moon, S.U., In, T.S., Lin, K., Maung, M., Chung, G.T., Lee, J.K., Kim, T.S., Kong, Y. Parasitol. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia. Kulsudjarit, K. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Genetic polymorphism of apolipoprotein C polypeptide in native Asian sheep. Tsunoda, K., Watanabe, S., Sato, J., Sato, K. Biochem. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
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