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MeSH Review

Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne

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Disease relevance of Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne


High impact information on Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne

  • Ciprofloxacin treatment of typhus [6].
  • How Charles Nicolle of the Pasteur Institute discovered that epidemic typhus is transmitted by lice: reminiscences from my years at the Pasteur Institute in Paris [7].
  • We conclude that lysis of cells infected with typhus group rickettsiae is mediated by a lymphokine-activated killer [8].
  • The presence of the nucleic acid of the spotted fever group (SPG) and typhus group (TG) rickettsiae was investigated in 200 serum specimens seropositive for SFG rickettsiae by multiplex-nested polymerase chain reaction with primers derived from the rickettsial outer membrane protein B gene [9].
  • Failure of azithromycin in treatment of Brill-Zinsser disease [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne


Biological context of Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne

  • Cross-reaction with at least one of the typhus antigens was observed in the sera from 64% of the SF patients [14].
  • The culminating points of their maltreatment in Buchenwald were the use of homosexuals in experiments to develop immunization against typhus fever and the attempt by an SS doctor to "cure" homosexuality through the implantation of sexual hormones [15].

Anatomical context of Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne

  • Effects of typhus rickettsiae on peritoneal and alveolar macrophages: rickettsiae stimulate leukotriene and prostaglandin secretion [13].
  • We examined the ability of monoclonal antibodies directed against lymphocyte surface antigens to block the lysis of typhus group rickettsia-infected cells by lymphokine-activated killer effectors [16].
  • Aortic and mitral valve replacement surgery and a 6-week course of doxycycline therapy produced a clinical cure in this patient, as well as a diagnostic fall in markedly elevated preoperative typhus indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and complement fixation (CF) titers [17].
  • Morphological changes in the viscera of albino mice were studied over the course of North Asia typhus fever [18].

Gene context of Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne

  • Restriction polymorphism patterns of three examined amplicons from the CS gene, 17-kDa-protein gene, and ompB gene were identical among the eight phenotype-positive LB strains and were unique among all known rickettsiae of the spotted fever and typhus groups [19].
  • We sequenced the 4, 122- to 4,125-bp RNA polymerase beta-subunit-encoding gene (rpoB) from typhus and spotted fever group representatives and obtained partial sequences for all naturally rifampin-resistant species [20].
  • However, several strains of the typhus group rickettsiae possess metK genes lacking obvious mutations [21].
  • About 50% of typhus group sera reacted with a single line in CIE and had antibody titers of 1:20-1:80 by EIA [22].
  • Molecular analysis of the 17-kDa antigen gene and the citrate synthase gene has discriminated this bacterium from other typhus group and spotted fever group rickettsiae [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne

  • In the absence of sophisticated laboratory support, it had become common practice to treat patients with obscure fevers with tetracycline as a 'diagnostic' test for typhus [24].
  • The protein antigens of two distinct lines of genetically related strains, namely the nonpathogenic strain E and its virulent revertant EVir and of the standard virulent strain Breinl were compared in SDS-PAGE and immunoblot assay using typhus patient sera and immune rabbit sera [25].


  1. Failure of azithromycin in treatment of Brill-Zinsser disease. Turcinov, D., Kuzman, I., Herendić, B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Epidemic typhus meningitis in the southwestern United States. Massung, R.F., Davis, L.E., Slater, K., McKechnie, D.B., Puerzer, M. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Diagnosis of typhus infection with Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by polymerase chain reaction. Sugita, Y., Nagatani, T., Okuda, K., Yoshida, Y., Nakajima, H. J. Med. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Human anti-scrub typhus rickettsia and rabbit anti-Proteus antibodies recognize similar epitope in the O-polysaccharide part of Proteus mirabilis OXK lipopolysaccharide. Kaca, W., Amano, K., Chernyak, A.Y., Knirel, Y.A. Microbios (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Persistently elevated serum transcobalamin II in a patient with cerebral malaria and typhus infections. Areekul, S., Churdchu, K., Cheeramakara, C., Wilairatana, P., Charoenlarp, P. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Ciprofloxacin treatment of typhus. Eaton, M., Cohen, M.T., Shlim, D.R., Innes, B. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. How Charles Nicolle of the Pasteur Institute discovered that epidemic typhus is transmitted by lice: reminiscences from my years at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Gross, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of human cytotoxic lymphocytes directed against cells infected with typhus group rickettsiae: evidence for lymphokine activation of effectors. Carl, M., Dasch, G.A. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsioses in humans, South Korea. Choi, Y.J., Jang, W.J., Ryu, J.S., Lee, S.H., Park, K.H., Paik, H.S., Koh, Y.S., Choi, M.S., Kim, I.S. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Endothelial prostaglandin secretion: effects of typhus rickettsiae. Walker, T.S., Brown, J.S., Hoover, C.S., Morgan, D.A. J. Infect. Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of the Madrid E strain of Rickettsia prowazekii purified by renografin density gradient centrifugation. Dasch, G.A., Weiss, E. Infect. Immun. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Surface proteins of typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiae. Osterman, J.V., Eisemann, C.S. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of typhus rickettsiae on peritoneal and alveolar macrophages: rickettsiae stimulate leukotriene and prostaglandin secretion. Walker, T.S., Dersch, M.W., White, W.E. J. Infect. Dis. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Recent experience with the complement fixation test in the laboratory diagnosis of rickettsial diseases in the United States. Shepard, C.C., Redus, M.A., Tzianabos, T., Warfield, D.T. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Homosexual inmates in the Buchenwald Concentration Camp. Röll, W. Journal of homosexuality. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Lymphokine-activated-killer-mediated lysis of cells infected with typhus group rickettsiae can be inhibited by OKT3 monoclonal antibody. Carl, M., Dasch, G.A. Infect. Immun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Serologic evidence of acute murine typhus infection in a patient with culture-negative endocarditis. Austin, S.M., Smith, S.M., Co, B., Coppel, I.G., Johnson, J.E. Am. J. Med. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Tick-borne typhus fever of northern Asia: some characteristics of the pathogenesis. Nelyubov, M.V. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Genotype characterization of the bacterium expressing the male-killing trait in the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata with specific rickettsial molecular tools. Balayeva, N.M., Eremeeva, M.E., Tissot-Dupont, H., Zakharov, I.A., Raoult, D. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of mutations in the rpoB gene in naturally rifampin-resistant Rickettsia species. Drancourt, M., Raoult, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Rickettsial metK-encoded methionine adenosyltransferase expression in an Escherichia coli metK deletion strain. Driskell, L.O., Tucker, A.M., Winkler, H.H., Wood, D.O. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Enzyme immunoassay of antibody to Rochalimaea quintana: diagnosis of trench fever and serologic cross-reactions among other rickettsiae. Hollingdale, M.R., Herrmann, J.E., Vinson, J.W. J. Infect. Dis. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of a novel rickettsial infection in a patient diagnosed with murine typhus. Schriefer, M.E., Sacci, J.B., Dumler, J.S., Bullen, M.G., Azad, A.F. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Murine and scrub typhus at Thai-Kampuchean border displaced persons camps. Wilde, H., Pornsilapatip, J., Sokly, T., Thee, S. Tropical and geographical medicine. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Protein antigens of genetically related Rickettsia prowazekii strains with different virulence. Balayeva, N.M., Eremeeva, M.E., Ignatovich, V.F., Dmitriev, B.A., Lapina, E.B., Belousova, L.S. Acta Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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