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MeSH Review

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

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Disease relevance of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


Psychiatry related information on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


High impact information on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


Chemical compound and disease context of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

  • Twenty subjects with confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure (10 of whom were diagnosed as having Fetal Alcohol Syndrome) and 20 normal controls matched for age, gender, and ethnic background participated [16].
  • Data from the patients herein described and the available scientific literature suggest that the mechanism of alcohol craniofacial teratogenesis may be nonspecific, with a variety of teratogens, including toluene, giving rise to phenotypic facial abnormalities similar to those of the fetal alcohol syndrome [17].
  • Ethanol triggers massive apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain by interfering with both the NMDA and GABA(subscript)A(/subscript) receptor systems, and this can explain the reduced brain mass and lifelong neurobehavioral disturbances associated with intrauterine exposure of the human fetus to ethanol (fetal alcohol syndrome) [18].
  • We conclude that patients with fetal alcohol syndrome have a defect in distal acidification and potassium excretion which cannot be attributed to abnormal aldosterone secretion [19].
  • Inhibition of retinoic acid synthesis and its implications in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) [20].

Biological context of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


Anatomical context of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


Gene context of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


  1. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide protects rat cerebellar granule neurons against ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death. Vaudry, D., Rousselle, C., Basille, M., Falluel-Morel, A., Pamantung, T.F., Fontaine, M., Fournier, A., Vaudry, H., Gonzalez, B.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Sonic hedgehog rescues cranial neural crest from cell death induced by ethanol exposure. Ahlgren, S.C., Thakur, V., Bronner-Fraser, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E and vitamin E mitigate ethanol-mediated effects on cerebellar granule cell antioxidant defense systems. Siler-Marsiglio, K.I., Pan, Q., Paiva, M., Madorsky, I., Khurana, N.C., Heaton, M.B. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Ethanol-associated selective fetal malnutrition: a contributing factor in the fetal alcohol syndrome. Fisher, S.E., Atkinson, M., Burnap, J.K., Jacobson, S., Sehgal, P.K., Scott, W., Van Thiel, D.H. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Ethanol inhibits C6 cell growth: fetal alcohol syndrome model. Isenberg, K., Zhou, X., Moore, B.W. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Ethanol inhibition of glycine-activated responses in neurons of ventral tegmental area of neonatal rats. Ye, J.H., Tao, L., Zhu, L., Krnjević, K., McArdle, J.J. J. Neurophysiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Neonatal ethanol withdrawal: characteristics in clinically normal, nondysmorphic neonates. Coles, C.D., Smith, I.E., Fernhoff, P.M., Falek, A. J. Pediatr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Stage-dependent effects of ethanol on cranial neural crest cell development: partial basis for the phenotypic variations observed in fetal alcohol syndrome. Cartwright, M.M., Smith, S.M. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Ethanol elevates fetal serum glutamate levels in the rat. Karl, P.I., Kwun, R., Slonim, A., Fisher, S.E. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Prenatal binge-like alcohol exposure in the rat results in region-specific deficits in brain growth. Maier, S.E., Miller, J.A., West, J.R. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration and fetal alcohol syndrome. Ikonomidou, C., Bittigau, P., Ishimaru, M.J., Wozniak, D.F., Koch, C., Genz, K., Price, M.T., Stefovska, V., Hörster, F., Tenkova, T., Dikranian, K., Olney, J.W. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Acetaldehyde and the fetal alcohol syndrome. Ryle, P.R., Thomson, A.D. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Metronidazole and the fetal alcohol syndrome. Dunn, P.M., Stewart-Brown, S., Peel, R. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Retinoic acid: its biosynthesis and metabolism. Napoli, J.L. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. The role of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Tsai, G., Coyle, J.T. Annu. Rev. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Emotion-related learning in individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol: an investigation of the relation between set shifting, extinction of responses, and behavior. Kodituwakku, P.W., May, P.A., Clericuzio, C.L., Weers, D. Neuropsychologia. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Toluene embryopathy: delineation of the phenotype and comparison with fetal alcohol syndrome. Pearson, M.A., Hoyme, H.E., Seaver, L.H., Rimsza, M.E. Pediatrics (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Environmental agents that have the potential to trigger massive apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Olney, J.W., Farber, N.B., Wozniak, D.F., Jevtovic-Todorovic, V., Ikonomidou, C. Environ. Health Perspect. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Impaired renal acidification in infants with fetal alcohol syndrome. Assadi, F.K., Ziai, M. Pediatr. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibition of retinoic acid synthesis and its implications in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Zachman, R.D., Grummer, M.A. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome in a South African community in the Western Cape Province. May, P.A., Brooke, L., Gossage, J.P., Croxford, J., Adnams, C., Jones, K.L., Robinson, L., Viljoen, D. American journal of public health. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. In utero ethanol suppresses cerebellar activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B transcriptional activation in a rat fetal alcohol syndrome model. Acquaah-Mensah, G.K., Kehrer, J.P., Leslie, S.W. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Ethanol effects on embryonic craniofacial growth and development: implications for study of the fetal alcohol syndrome. Weston, W.M., Greene, R.M., Uberti, M., Pisano, M.M. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. An update on incidence of FAS: FAS is not an equal opportunity birth defect. Abel, E.L. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Mitochondrial dna damage and impaired mitochondrial function contribute to apoptosis of insulin-stimulated ethanol-exposed neuronal cells. de La Monte, S.M., Wands, J.R. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Kinetic mechanism of human class IV alcohol dehydrogenase functioning as retinol dehydrogenase. Chou, C.F., Lai, C.L., Chang, Y.C., Duester, G., Yin, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Ethanol does not inhibit the adhesive activity of Drosophila neuroglian or human L1 in Drosophila S2 tissue culture cells. Vallejo, Y., Hortsch, M., Dubreuil, R.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Alterations in hippocampal phospholipid profile by prenatal exposure to ethanol. Wen, Z., Kim, H.Y. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Catalase and peroxiredoxin 5 protect Xenopus embryos against alcohol-induced ocular anomalies. Peng, Y., Yang, P.H., Guo, Y., Ng, S.S., Liu, J., Fung, P.C., Tay, D., Ge, J., He, M.L., Kung, H.F., Lin, M.C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Partial rescue of ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis by growth factor activation of phosphoinositol-3-kinase. de la Monte, S.M., Ganju, N., Banerjee, K., Brown, N.V., Luong, T., Wands, J.R. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Retinoic acid synthesis in mouse embryos during gastrulation and craniofacial development linked to class IV alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression. Ang, H.L., Deltour, L., Hayamizu, T.F., Zgombić-Knight, M., Duester, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Cell surface expression of NR1 splice variants and NR2 subunits is modified by prenatal ethanol exposure. Honse, Y., Nixon, K.M., Browning, M.D., Leslie, S.W. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Differential expression of c-fos in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome. Poggi, S.H., Goodwin, K.M., Hill, J.M., Brenneman, D.E., Tendi, E., Schninelli, S., Spong, C.Y. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. The role of alcohol dehydrogenase in retinoic acid homeostasis and fetal alcohol syndrome. Shean, M.L., Duester, G. Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). Supplement. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. N-methyl-D-aspartate subunit expression during mouse development altered by in utero alcohol exposure. Toso, L., Poggi, S.H., Abebe, D., Roberson, R., Dunlap, V., Park, J., Spong, C.Y. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Fetal alcohol syndrome: failure of zinc supplementation to reverse the effect of ethanol on placental transport of zinc. Ghishan, F.K., Greene, H.L. Pediatr. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  37. Craniofacial malformation in Xenopus laevis tadpoles caused by the exposure of early embryos to ethanol. Nakatsuji, N. Teratology (1983) [Pubmed]
  38. Cleft palate in a patient with Williams' syndrome. Blanco-Dávila, F., Olveda-Rodriguez, J.A. The Journal of craniofacial surgery. (2001) [Pubmed]
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