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Disease relevance of Socialization


Psychiatry related information on Socialization

  • One peripheral measure, salivary cortisol concentration, may reflect individual differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that underlie propensities for aggression, socialization, and adaptation to stress [2].
  • After 8 weeks on L-carnosine, children showed statistically significant improvements on the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (total score and the Behavior, Socialization, and Communication subscales) and the Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary test (all P < .05) [3].
  • People with epilepsy frequently report diminished socialization, negative self image, feelings of stigmatization, reduced earnings potential, and diminished hope and ambition [4].
  • The three factors were correlated with other personality measures theoretically linked to drinking (MacAndrew, Socialization and Sensation-Seeking scales), quantity and frequency measures of alcohol use and a measure of alcohol abuse (the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test) [5].
  • Our data support the effect of both prenatal androgen exposure and socialization on gender role behavior in adult women with CAH due to 21-OH deficiency [6].

High impact information on Socialization

  • CONCLUSIONS: The status of the TPH A779C allele as a marker for suicidality was replicated and linkage with alcoholism and Karolinska Scales of Personality socialization score was also observed [7].
  • However, these studies do not permit a clear assessment of the role played by either prenatal steroid hormones or postnatal socialization factors in the ultimate expression of sexual behavior in humans [1].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relative contribution of gender-related work conditions, gender-related socialization practices, and disease characteristics to the explanation of emotional distress in men and women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [8].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a single injection of intravenous secretin results in measurable improvements in socialization and/or communication skills in children with autism [9].
  • Monthly evaluations by the nurse revealed that piracetam improved overall functioning, particularly alertness, socialization, and cooperation, relative to the control group [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Socialization


Biological context of Socialization


Associations of Socialization with chemical compounds

  • When the children were treated with methylphenidate only, improvement was seen in socialization skills and attention span according to teacher checklists [16].
  • Low MAO subjects showed a pattern of higher scores in KSP Impulsiveness, EPQ Neuroticism, and KSP Somatic Anxiety and Irritability and lower scores in KSP Socialization, in line with personality profiles found in alcoholics, psychopaths, and suicide attempters who also tend to have low platelet MAO activity [17].
  • Nineteen temporal lobectomy patients with epilepsy were evaluated (11 right and 8 left) with a brief questionnaire that addressed: (1) General Happiness; (2) Depression; (3) Anxiety; (4) Impulse Control; and (5) Socialization [18].
  • Socialization increased the effectiveness of furaltadone [19].
  • In drug-free patients suspiciousness was positively correlated, and socialization was negatively correlated, with urinary bufotenin excretion [20].

Gene context of Socialization

  • Gastrin levels correlated inversely with socialization [21].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Zinc monotherapy was significantly superior to placebo in reducing symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and impaired socialization in patients with ADHD [22].
  • These results are discussed in terms of oxytocin contributions to socialization and fear responding and the significance of these findings to DS [23].
  • A subsequent breakdown of Factor 2 into its attention and socialization components provided further meaningful differentiations [24].
  • ERP correlates of error monitoring in 10-year olds are related to socialization [25].


  1. Androgens and sexual behavior. Pardridge, W.M., Gorski, R.A., Lippe, B.M., Green, R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Low salivary cortisol and persistent aggression in boys referred for disruptive behavior. McBurnett, K., Lahey, B.B., Rathouz, P.J., Loeber, R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-carnosine supplementation in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Chez, M.G., Buchanan, C.P., Aimonovitch, M.C., Becker, M., Schaefer, K., Black, C., Komen, J. J. Child Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Validation of the side effect and life satisfaction (SEALS) inventory. Gillham, R., Bryant-Comstock, L., Kane, K. Seizure : the journal of the British Epilepsy Association. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Factor structure and correlates of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Earleywine, M., Finn, P.R., Peterson, J.B., Pihl, R.O. J. Stud. Alcohol (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Gender role across development in adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Long, D.N., Wisniewski, A.B., Migeon, C.J. Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. A tryptophan hydroxylase gene marker for suicidality and alcoholism. Nielsen, D.A., Virkkunen, M., Lappalainen, J., Eggert, M., Brown, G.L., Long, J.C., Goldman, D., Linnoila, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Gender, paid work, and symptoms of emotional distress in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Fifield, J., Reisine, S., Sheehan, T.J., McQuillan, J. Arthritis Rheum. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of single-dose intravenous secretin as treatment for children with autism. Coniglio, S.J., Lewis, J.D., Lang, C., Burns, T.G., Subhani-Siddique, R., Weintraub, A., Schub, H., Holden, E.W. J. Pediatr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Piracetam in elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment. Chouinard, G., Annable, L., Ross-Chouinard, A., Olivier, M., Fontaine, F. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. The effects of role socialization on the initiation of cocaine use: an event history analysis from adolescence into middle adulthood. Burton, R.P., Johnson, R.J., Ritter, C., Clayton, R.R. Journal of health and social behavior. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Adaptive behavior of children with symptomatic HIV infection before and after zidovudine therapy. Wolters, P.L., Brouwers, P., Moss, H.A., Pizzo, P.A. Journal of pediatric psychology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. The socialization of homosexuality and heterosexuality in a non-Western society. Baldwin, J.D., Baldwin, J.I. Archives of sexual behavior. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Ethanol, GABA and epilepsy. Brailowsky, S., García, O. Arch. Med. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Social pathways to premenstrual symptoms. Woods, N.F., Mitchell, E.S., Lentz, M.J. Research in nursing & health. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. A controlled trial of stimulant medication in children with the fragile X syndrome. Hagerman, R.J., Murphy, M.A., Wittenberger, M.D. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Markers for vulnerability to psychopathology: temperament traits associated with platelet MAO activity. Schalling, D., Asberg, M., Edman, G., Oreland, L. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Emotional status after right vs. left temporal lobectomy. Burton, L.A., Labar, D. Seizure : the journal of the British Epilepsy Association. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Combined effects of deoxycorticosterone and furaltadone on Escherichia coli infection in chickens. Gross, W.B. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Urinary excretion of bufotenin (N,N-dimethyl-5-hydroxytryptamine) is increased in suspicious violent offenders: a confirmatory study. Kärkkäinen, J., Räisänen, M., Huttunen, M.O., Kallio, E., Naukkarinen, H., Virkkunen, M. Psychiatry research. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Personality traits in a group of individuals with functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and their correlation with gastrin, somatostatin and oxytocin levels. Uvnäs-Moberg, K., Arn, I., Theorell, T., Jonsson, C.O. Journal of psychosomatic research. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Bilici, M., Yildirim, F., Kandil, S., Bekaroğlu, M., Yildirmiş, S., Değer, O., Ulgen, M., Yildiran, A., Aksu, H. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of social behaviors and oxytocinergic neurons in the S-100 beta overexpressing mouse model of Down Syndrome. Borella, A., Sumangali, R., Ko, J., Whitaker-Azmitia, P.M. Behav. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Predictive validity of four factors derived from an 'hyperactivity/MBD' questionnaire. Alterman, A.I., Gerstley, L.J. Drug and alcohol dependence. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. ERP correlates of error monitoring in 10-year olds are related to socialization. Santesso, D.L., Segalowitz, S.J., Schmidt, L.A. Biological psychology. (2005) [Pubmed]
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