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Chemical Compound Review

Gabacet     2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1- yl)ethanamide

Synonyms: Nootropil, Nootropyl, Pirazetam, Pyracetam, Pyramem, ...
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Disease relevance of Nootropyl


Psychiatry related information on Nootropyl


High impact information on Nootropyl


Chemical compound and disease context of Nootropyl


Biological context of Nootropyl


Anatomical context of Nootropyl


Associations of Nootropyl with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Nootropyl

  • When piracetam, a neuroprotective drug, was added to the tissue culture medium simultaneously with TNF-alpha, the expression of mbVCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was lowered [30].
  • Piracetam inhibits the lipid-destabilising effect of the amyloid peptide Abeta C-terminal fragment [31].
  • Piracetam-treated children showed significant improvements in reading ability (Gray Oral Reading Test) and reading comprehension (Gilmore Oral Reading Test) [32].
  • 3. Piracetam had no effect on basal plasma PRL concentration [33].
  • Mapped on a 3D template of GLUT1, these homologies suggest that the site of diazepam and piracetam interaction is a pocket outside the central hydrophilic pore region [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nootropyl

  • Some studies have indicated that amphetamines, piracetam and repetitive transcortical magnetic stimulation may be effective adjuncts to speech and language therapy [34].
  • Inhibitory effect of piracetam on platelet-rich thrombus formation in an animal model [5].
  • An additional influence of piracetam on the rheology of the circulating blood and/or on the vessel wall itself must therefore be taken into consideration [5].
  • Power spectral analyses revealed that piracetam caused a decrease in the amount of delta activity and an increase in the average EEG frequency [35].
  • In a 12-week double-blind study, piracetam at two dose levels (2.4 and 4.8 g/day) was compared to placebo in the treatment of 60 elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment, but no signs of focal brain lesion [36].


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  3. Cortical myoclonus in Angelman syndrome. Guerrini, R., De Lorey, T.M., Bonanni, P., Moncla, A., Dravet, C., Suisse, G., Livet, M.O., Bureau, M., Malzac, P., Genton, P., Thomas, P., Sartucci, F., Simi, P., Serratosa, J.M. Ann. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics. Gouliaev, A.H., Senning, A. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhibitory effect of piracetam on platelet-rich thrombus formation in an animal model. Stockmans, F., Deberdt, W., Nyström, A., Nyström, E., Stassen, J.M., Vermylen, J., Deckmyn, H. Thromb. Haemost. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Clinical response to choline plus piracetam in senile dementia: relation to red-cell choline level. Friedman, E., Sherman, K.A., Ferris, S.H., Reisberg, B., Bartus, R.T., Schneck, M.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of piracetam on cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease as measured by positron emission tomography. Heiss, W.D., Hebold, I., Klinkhammer, P., Ziffling, P., Szelies, B., Pawlik, G., Herholz, K. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Influence of vincamine and piracetam on sleep--waking pattern of the cat. Glatt, A., Klebs, K., Koella, W.P. Biol. Psychiatry (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Synthesis and cognition activating properties of some mono- and bicyclic lactam derivatives. Altomare, C., Carotti, A., Casini, G., Cellamare, S., Ferappi, M., Gavuzzo, E., Mazza, F., Pantaleoni, G., Giorgi, R. J. Med. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. The effects of piracetam in children with dyslexia. Di Ianni, M., Wilsher, C.R., Blank, M.S., Conners, C.K., Chase, C.H., Funkenstein, H.H., Helfgott, E., Holmes, J.M., Lougee, L., Maletta, G.J. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of piracetam and iodoacetamide on erythrocyte sickling. Costa, F.F., Zago, M.A., Bottura, C. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of piracetam on level of consciousness after neurosurgery. Richardson, A.E., Bereen, F.J. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Long-term efficacy and safety of piracetam in the treatment of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Fedi, M., Reutens, D., Dubeau, F., Andermann, E., D'Agostino, D., Andermann, F. Arch. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. The pathophysiology and pharmacology of photic cortical reflex myoclonus. Artieda, J., Obeso, J.A. Ann. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. The treatment of severe action myoclonus. Obeso, J.A., Artieda, J., Rothwell, J.C., Day, B., Thompson, P., Marsden, C.D. Brain (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. An animal model of human-type memory loss based on aging, lesion, forebrain ischemia, and drug studies with the rat. Ordy, J.M., Thomas, G.J., Volpe, B.T., Dunlap, W.P., Colombo, P.M. Neurobiol. Aging (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Piracetam combined with lecithin in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Growdon, J.H., Corkin, S., Huff, F.J., Rosen, T.J. Neurobiol. Aging (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Levetiracetam in the treatment of idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Grünewald, R. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of piracetam on membrane fluidity in the aged mouse, rat, and human brain. Müller, W.E., Koch, S., Scheuer, K., Rostock, A., Bartsch, R. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. The effects of piracetam upon visual event-related potentials in dyslexic children. Conners, C.K., Reader, M., Reiss, A., Caldwell, J., Caldwell, L., Adesman, A., Mayer, L., Berg, M., Clymer, R., Erwin, R. Psychophysiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of piracetam on polyphosphoinositide metabolism, cytosolic calcium release, and oxidative burst in human polymorphonuclear cells: interaction with fMLP-induced stimulation. Tissot, M., Sarfati, G., Roch-Arveiller, M., Giroud, J.P. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Protein metabolism in the rat cerebral cortex in vivo and in vitro as affected by the acquistion-enhancing drug piracetam. Nickolson, V.J., Wolthuis, O.L. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Influence of the postlesion environment and chronic piracetam treatment on the organization of the somatotopic map in the rat primary somatosensory cortex after focal cortical injury. Xerri, C., Zennou-Azogui, Y. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. The 2-oxopyrrolidinacetamide piracetam reduces infarct brain volume induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in male rats. Tortiglione, A., Minale, M., Pignataro, G., Amoroso, S., DiRenzo, G., Annunziato, L. Neuropharmacology (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Profound effects of combining choline and piracetam on memory enhancement and cholinergic function in aged rats. Bartus, R.T., Dean, R.L., Sherman, K.A., Friedman, E., Beer, B. Neurobiol. Aging (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Piracetam-induced changes to membrane physical properties. A combined approach by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance and conformational analysis. Peuvot, J., Schanck, A., Deleers, M., Brasseur, R. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D-glucose transport. Naftalin, R.J., Cunningham, P., Afzal-Ahmed, I. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of the acquisition-enhancing drug piracetam on rat cerebral energy metabolism. Comparison with naftidrofuryl and methamphetamine. Nickolson, V.J., Wolthuis, O.L. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. Clinical trials in mild cognitive impairment: lessons for the future. Jelic, V., Kivipelto, M., Winblad, B. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of membrane-bound and soluble cell adhesion molecules by human brain microvessel endothelial cells. Vastag, M., Skopál, J., Voko, Z., Csonka, E., Nagy, Z. Microvasc. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Piracetam inhibits the lipid-destabilising effect of the amyloid peptide Abeta C-terminal fragment. Mingeot-Leclercq, M.P., Lins, L., Bensliman, M., Thomas, A., Van Bambeke, F., Peuvot, J., Schanck, A., Brasseur, R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Piracetam and dyslexia: effects on reading tests. Wilsher, C.R., Bennett, D., Chase, C.H., Conners, C.K., DiIanni, M., Feagans, L., Hanvik, L.J., Helfgott, E., Koplewicz, H., Overby, P. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Modulating effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin secretion in male rats. Matton, A., Engelborghs, S., Bollengier, F., Finné, E., Vanhaeist, L. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Disorders of speech and language: aphasia, apraxia and dysarthria. Jordan, L.C., Hillis, A.E. Curr. Opin. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of piracetam on EEG spectra of boys with learning disorders. Volavka, J., Simeon, J., Simeon, S., Cho, D., Reker, D. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  36. Piracetam in elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment. Chouinard, G., Annable, L., Ross-Chouinard, A., Olivier, M., Fontaine, F. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1983) [Pubmed]
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