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Chemical Compound Review

Ignotine     2-(3-aminopropanoylamino)-3- (3H-imidazol-4...

Synonyms: beta-ALA-HIS, SureCN33768, AG-H-06850, SureCN1160796, ACMC-209hh9, ...
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Disease relevance of Carnosine


Psychiatry related information on Carnosine


High impact information on Carnosine


Chemical compound and disease context of Carnosine


Biological context of Carnosine


Anatomical context of Carnosine

  • Biosynthesis of carnosine and related peptides by glial cells in primary culture [20].
  • Carnosinase, the dipeptidase which hydrolyses carnosine and other histidine-containing dipeptides, was assayed in mucosal tissues of the human and of the rat gut [21].
  • 5. We propose that the cellular imidazoles related to carnosine are natural 'Ca2+ sensitizers' in striated muscle [22].
  • METHODS: Uptake of tritiated L-carnosine was monitored using conjunctival epithelial cells on days 6 through 8 in culture on a filter support [23].
  • Due to the combination of weak metal chelating (abolished by EDTA), OH. and lipid peroxyl radicals scavenging, reducing activities to liberated fatty acid and phospholipid hydroperoxides, carnosine and carcinine appear to be physiological antioxidants able to efficiently protect the lipid phase of biological membranes and aqueous environments [24].

Associations of Carnosine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Carnosine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carnosine


  1. Renoprotective Effects of l-Carnosine on Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Renal Injury in Rats. Kurata, H., Fujii, T., Tsutsui, H., Katayama, T., Ohkita, M., Takaoka, M., Tsuruoka, N., Kiso, Y., Ohno, Y., Fujisawa, Y., Shokoji, T., Nishiyama, A., Abe, Y., Matsumura, Y. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Analysis of an H1 receptor-mediated, zinc-potentiated vasoconstrictor action of the histidyl dipeptide carnosine in rabbit saphenous vein. O'Dowd, A., Miller, D.J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Metabolic effects of histidine-deficient diets fed to growing rats by gastric tube. Clemens, R.A., Kopple, J.D., Swendseid, M.E. J. Nutr. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Salmonella typhimurium peptidase active on carnosine. Kirsh, M., Dembinski, D.R., Hartman, P.E., Miller, C.G. J. Bacteriol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Carnosine-related dipeptides in the mammalian brain. Bonfanti, L., Peretto, P., De Marchis, S., Fasolo, A. Prog. Neurobiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Toxic effects of beta-amyloid(25-35) on immortalised rat brain endothelial cell: protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and beta-alanine. Preston, J.E., Hipkiss, A.R., Himsworth, D.T., Romero, I.A., Abbott, J.N. Neurosci. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Carnosine, taurine and enzyme activities of human skeletal muscle fibres from elderly subjects with osteoarthritis and young moderately active subjects. Tallon, M.J., Harris, R.C., Maffulli, N., Tarnopolsky, M.A. Biogerontology (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-carnosine supplementation in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Chez, M.G., Buchanan, C.P., Aimonovitch, M.C., Becker, M., Schaefer, K., Black, C., Komen, J. J. Child Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Cell cultures of neuroblasts from rat olfactory epithelium that show odorant responses. Coon, H.G., Curcio, F., Sakaguchi, K., Brandi, M.L., Swerdlow, R.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Spatial aspects of intracellular pH regulation in heart muscle. Vaughan-Jones, R.D., Spitzer, K.W., Swietach, P. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Carnosine in primary afferents of the olfactory system: an autoradiographic and biochemical study. Burd, G.D., Davis, B.J., Macrides, F., Grillo, M., Margolis, F.L. J. Neurosci. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Carnosine as a protective factor in diabetic nephropathy: association with a leucine repeat of the carnosinase gene CNDP1. Janssen, B., Hohenadel, D., Brinkkoetter, P., Peters, V., Rind, N., Fischer, C., Rychlik, I., Cerna, M., Romzova, M., de Heer, E., Baelde, H., Bakker, S.J., Zirie, M., Rondeau, E., Mathieson, P., Saleem, M.A., Meyer, J., Köppel, H., Sauerhoefer, S., Bartram, C.R., Nawroth, P., Hammes, H.P., Yard, B.A., Zschocke, J., van der Woude, F.J. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Sequence identification and characterization of human carnosinase and a closely related non-specific dipeptidase. Teufel, M., Saudek, V., Ledig, J.P., Bernhardt, A., Boularand, S., Carreau, A., Cairns, N.J., Carter, C., Cowley, D.J., Duverger, D., Ganzhorn, A.J., Guenet, C., Heintzelmann, B., Laucher, V., Sauvage, C., Smirnova, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Histidine, an essential amino acid for adult dogs. Cianciaruso, B., Jones, M.R., Kopple, J.D. J. Nutr. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. The biological activity of hydrogen peroxide. IV. Enhancement of its clastogenic actions by coadministration of L-histidine. Oya, Y., Yamamoto, K. Mutat. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Carnosine prevents methamphetamine-induced gliosis but not dopamine terminal loss in rats. Pubill, D., Verdaguer, E., Sureda, F.X., Camins, A., Pallàs, M., Camarasa, J., Escubedo, E. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of pH gradient and membrane potential in dipeptide transport in intestinal and renal brush-border membrane vesicles from the rabbit. Studies with L-carnosine and glycyl-L-proline. Ganapathy, V., Leibach, F.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Infrared linear dichroism of oriented DNA-ligand complexes prepared with the wet-spinning method. Fritzsche, H., Rupprecht, A., Richter, M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Retardation of the senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts by carnosine. McFarland, G.A., Holliday, R. Exp. Cell Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Biosynthesis of carnosine and related peptides by glial cells in primary culture. Bauer, K., Hallermayer, K., Salnikow, J., Kleinkauf, H., Hamprecht, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Carnosinase activity of human gastrointestinal mucosa. Sadikali, F., Darwish, R., Watson, W.C. Gut (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Calcium sensitizing action of carnosine and other endogenous imidazoles in chemically skinned striated muscle. Lamont, C., Miller, D.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Proton-driven dipeptide uptake in primary cultured rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells. Basu, S.K., Haworth, I.S., Bolger, M.B., Lee, V.H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) act as natural antioxidants with hydroxyl-radical-scavenging and lipid-peroxidase activities. Babizhayev, M.A., Seguin, M.C., Gueyne, J., Evstigneeva, R.P., Ageyeva, E.A., Zheltukhina, G.A. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Carnosine synthesis in olfactory tissue during ontogeny: effect of exogenous beta-alanine. Margolis, F.L., Grillo, M., Kawano, T., Farbman, A.I. J. Neurochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Taurine rescues hippocampal long-term potentiation from ammonia-induced impairment. Chepkova, A.N., Sergeeva, O.A., Haas, H.L. Neurobiol. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Factors affecting the microclimate pH in rat jejunum. Shimada, T. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Hysteresis and the length dependence of calcium sensitivity in chemically skinned rat cardiac muscle. Harrison, S.M., Lamont, C., Miller, D.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Homology modeling of human serum carnosinase, a potential medicinal target, and MD simulations of its allosteric activation by citrate. Vistoli, G., Pedretti, A., Cattaneo, M., Aldini, G., Testa, B. J. Med. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Alteration of carnosine expression in olfactory system of mouse after unilateral naris closure and partial bulbectomy. Sakai, M., Nagatsu, I. J. Neurosci. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Prenatal differentiation of mouse vomeronasal neurones. Tarozzo, G., Cappello, P., De Andrea, M., Walters, E., Margolis, F.L., Oestreicher, B., Fasolo, A. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of carnosine on runt-related transcription factor-2/core binding factor alpha-1 and Sox9 expressions of human periodontal ligament cells. Ito-Kato, E., Suzuki, N., Maeno, M., Takada, T., Tanabe, N., Takayama, T., Ito, K., Otsuka, K. J. Periodont. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. N-acetylhistidine, glutamate, and beta-alanine are concentrated in a receptor cell layer of the trout inner ear. Drescher, M.J., Drescher, D.G. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Carnosine uptake in rat choroid plexus primary cell cultures and choroid plexus whole tissue from PEPT2 null mice. Teuscher, N.S., Shen, H., Shu, C., Xiang, J., Keep, R.F., Smith, D.E. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Separation and determination of carnosine-related peptides using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Huang, Y., Duan, J., Chen, H., Chen, M., Chen, G. Electrophoresis (2005) [Pubmed]
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