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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Menstruation


Psychiatry related information on Menstruation


High impact information on Menstruation


Chemical compound and disease context of Menstruation


Biological context of Menstruation


Anatomical context of Menstruation

  • In regard to the capacity of TNF-alpha to induce a hemorrhagic necrosis in various tissues, this study suggests that an overproduction of TNF-alpha within the small arteries of the endometrial mucosa might be responsible for menstruation [21].
  • Interleukin-1 beta counteracted E2 + MPA-mediated inhibition of secreted MMP-3 levels, implying that leukocyte/trophoblast-derived cytokines can modulate steroid-regulated MMP-3 expression by stromal/decidual cells during menstruation and pregnancy [22].
  • Eosinophils, detected with monoclonal antibodies EG1 and EG2, were absent from extravascular sites between Days 5 and 26 but showed local accumulations just prior to and during menstruation [23].
  • Prostacyclin was infused into the uterus of non-pregnant women either during early menstruation or in the secretory phase of the cycle [24].
  • Inclusion criteria included: non-vegetarian, non-asian women whose last menstruation dated at least 12 months prior to the beginning of the study, with FSH > 40 mIU/ml, hot flushes and contraindication for HRT, not using tamoxifen or antibiotic and no disease of the gastrointestinal tract [25].

Associations of Menstruation with chemical compounds

  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether bone loss could be prevented by simulating a more normal hormonal pattern, using treatment with cyclic medroxyprogesterone, with or without calcium supplementation, in physically active women with disturbed menstruation [26].
  • We conclude that high parity and longer duration of exposure to estrogen, either through natural menstruation or postmenopausal ERT, have protective effects on BMD and are associated with a reduced incidence of atraumatic fracture in a population-based study [27].
  • Daily low-dose mifepristone has contraceptive potential by suppressing ovulation and menstruation: a double-blind randomized control trial of 2 and 5 mg per day for 120 days [28].
  • The study also demonstrates that inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis does not prevent exacerbation of asthma in relation to menstruation [29].
  • In the combined group of athletes with menstrual disturbances, diurnal secretions of testosterone, LH, and PRL were positively, whereas cortisol was negatively correlated with the number of menstruations the last year [30].

Gene context of Menstruation

  • These observations point to an essential role for MMP-1 in the early stages of menstruation [31].
  • In fresh tissues, a major increase in MMP-9 mRNA expression occurred at menstruation, after a larger increase in LEFTY-A mRNA [32].
  • Inducible NOS (iNOS) activity during menstruation was six times that of the proliferative or late-secretory phase (p < 0.05), whereas constitutive NOS activity remained unchanged [33].
  • These results confirm earlier reports of a reduced GH response at menstruation to other pharmacological agents [34].
  • These data suggest that glandular ERbeta expression is closely associated with a functional secretory role whereas glandular ERalpha and PR are associated with proliferation; glandular AR expression may be the switch required for menstruation [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Menstruation


  1. Vascular repair after menstruation involves regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor phosphorylation by sFLT-1. Graubert, M.D., Ortega, M.A., Kessel, B., Mortola, J.F., Iruela-Arispe, M.L. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and changing attitudes toward dysmenorrhea. Dawood, M.Y. Am. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Bulimia, menstruation, and PMS: treatment implications. Price, W.A., DiMarzio, L.R. The American journal of psychiatry. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. The role of sex hormones in headache. Silberstein, S.D. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human endometrium is regulated by hypoxia. Sharkey, A.M., Day, K., McPherson, A., Malik, S., Licence, D., Smith, S.K., Charnock-Jones, D.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Lactational amenorrhea/anovulation and some of their determinants: a comparison of well-nourished and undernourished women. Wasalathanthri, S., Tennekoon, K.H. Fertil. Steril. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Luteal phase defects induced by an agonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing factor: a model for fertility control. Sheehan, K.L., Casper, R.F., Yen, S.S. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Reduction of menstrual blood-loss by prostaglandin-synthetase inhibitors. Anderson, A.B., Haynes, P.J., Guillebaud, J., Turnbull, A.C. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the female reproductive system: clinical implications. Chrousos, G.P., Torpy, D.J., Gold, P.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Paracrine stimulation of interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) in the human endometrium by interleukin 1alpha and its dual block by ovarian steroids. Singer, C.F., Marbaix, E., Kokorine, I., Lemoine, P., Donnez, J., Eeckhout, Y., Courtoy, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Stromal-epithelial interaction mediates steroidal regulation of metalloproteinase expression in human endometrium. Osteen, K.G., Rodgers, W.H., Gaire, M., Hargrove, J.T., Gorstein, F., Matrisian, L.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Enhanced anticonvulsant activity of ganaxolone after neurosteroid withdrawal in a rat model of catamenial epilepsy. Reddy, D.S., Rogawski, M.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Ruptured corpus luteum with hemoperitoneum: a study of 173 surgical cases. Hallatt, J.G., Steele, C.H., Snyder, M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in female patients during menstruation: comparison of droperidol, metoclopramide and granisetron. Fujii, Y., Toyooka, H., Tanaka, H. British journal of anaesthesia. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Efficacy of mefenamic acid in patients with a complaint of menorrhagia. Fraser, I.S., Pearse, C., Shearman, R.P., Elliott, P.M., McIlveen, J., Markham, R. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Detailed assessment of big big prolactin in women with hyperprolactinemia and normal ovarian function. Fraser, I.S., Lun, Z.G., Zhou, J.P., Herington, A.C., McCarron, G., Caterson, I., Tan, K., Markham, R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Steroid-modulated stromal cell tissue factor expression: a model for the regulation of endometrial hemostasis and menstruation. Lockwood, C.J., Nemerson, Y., Krikun, G., Hausknecht, V., Markiewicz, L., Alvarez, M., Guller, S., Schatz, F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of skim milk supplementation of the maternal diet on lactational amenorrhea, maternal prolactin, and lactational behavior. Tennekoon, K.H., Karunanayake, E.H., Seneviratne, H.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. A novel homozygous Ala529Val LMNA mutation in Turkish patients with mandibuloacral dysplasia. Garg, A., Cogulu, O., Ozkinay, F., Onay, H., Agarwal, A.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of donor characteristics and platelet in vitro time and temperature on platelet aggregometry. Silver, W.P., Keller, M.P., Teel, R., Silver, D. J. Vasc. Surg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its mRNA in the endometrial mucosa during the menstrual cycle. Philippeaux, M.M., Piguet, P.F. Am. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Biological mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of RU 486: modulation of cultured endometrial stromal cell stromelysin-1 and prolactin expression. Schatz, F., Papp, C., Aigner, S., Krikun, G., Hausknecht, V., Lockwood, C.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Mast cell and eosinophil distribution and activation in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle. Jeziorska, M., Salamonsen, L.A., Woolley, D.E. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. The effect of intrauterine administration of prostacyclin on the contractility of the non-pregnant uterus in vivo. Lumsden, M.A., Baird, D.T. Prostaglandins (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Benefits of soy germ isoflavones in postmenopausal women with contraindication for conventional hormone replacement therapy. Petri Nahas, E., Nahás Neto, J., De Luca, L., Traiman, P., Pontes, A., Dalben, I. Maturitas. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Cyclic medroxyprogesterone treatment increases bone density: a controlled trial in active women with menstrual cycle disturbances. Prior, J.C., Vigna, Y.M., Barr, S.I., Rexworthy, C., Lentle, B.C. Am. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of estrogen exposure and reproductive factors on bone mineral density and osteoporotic fractures. Nguyen, T.V., Jones, G., Sambrook, P.N., White, C.P., Kelly, P.J., Eisman, J.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Daily low-dose mifepristone has contraceptive potential by suppressing ovulation and menstruation: a double-blind randomized control trial of 2 and 5 mg per day for 120 days. Brown, A., Cheng, L., Lin, S., Baird, D.T. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. The effect of sodium meclofenamate in premenstrual asthma: a controlled clinical trial. Eliasson, O., Densmore, M.J., Scherzer, H.H., DeGraff, A.C. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Diurnal profiles of testosterone and pituitary hormones suggest different mechanisms for menstrual disturbances in endurance athletes. Rickenlund, A., Thorén, M., Carlström, K., von Schoultz, B., Hirschberg, A.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Focal cellular origin and regulation of interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1) are related to menstrual breakdown in the human endometrium. Kokorine, I., Marbaix, E., Henriet, P., Okada, Y., Donnez, J., Eeckhout, Y., Courtoy, P.J. J. Cell. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9/gelatinase B expression and activation by ovarian steroids and LEFTY-A/endometrial bleeding-associated factor in the human endometrium. Cornet, P.B., Galant, C., Eeckhout, Y., Courtoy, P.J., Marbaix, E., Henriet, P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Elevation of inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in human endometrium during menstruation. Tschugguel, W., Schneeberger, C., Unfried, G., Bräutigam, G., Stonek, F., Wieser, F., Vytiska-Binstorfer, E., Czerwenka, K., Weninger, W., Kaider, A., Bursch, W., Breitschopf, H., Huber, J.C. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Influence of the menstrual cycle on neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to an opiate agonist in humans: preliminary results. Hoehe, M. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Quantitative histomorphometric analysis of gonadal steroid receptor distribution in the normal human endometrium through the menstrual cycle. Taylor, A.H., Guzail, M., Wahab, M., Thompson, J.R., Al-Azzawi, F. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Elafin in human endometrium: an antiprotease and antimicrobial molecule expressed during menstruation. King, A.E., Critchley, H.O., Sallenave, J.M., Kelly, R.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Role of goiter and of menstrual and reproductive factors in thyroid cancer: a population-based case-control study in New Caledonia (South Pacific), a very high incidence area. Truong, T., Orsi, L., Dubourdieu, D., Rougier, Y., Hémon, D., Guénel, P. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Tamoxifen treatment reverses the adverse effects of chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure on serum lipids. Vehmanen, L., Saarto, T., Blomqvist, C., Taskinen, M.R., Elomaa, I. Br. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 is a critical component for endometrial remodeling: localization and expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and FGF-R1 in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle and decreased FGF-R1 expression in menorrhagia. Sangha, R.K., Li, X.F., Shams, M., Ahmed, A. Lab. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. A comparison of flurbiprofen, tranexamic acid, and a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive device in the treatment of idiopathic menorrhagia. Milsom, I., Andersson, K., Andersch, B., Rybo, G. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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