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Chemical Compound Review

Temur     1,1,3,3-tetramethylurea

Synonyms: TPC-I008, CHEMBL11949, HSDB 129, ACMC-1B3L7, T24503_ALDRICH, ...
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Disease relevance of TMU


High impact information on TMU

  • In solid phase assays a low concentration (0.05 M) of tetramethylurea abolished P. aeruginosa bacterial binding to both mucins as well as to BSA, whereas in solution phase assays mucin binding to bacteria was not completely disrupted by tetramethylurea [3].
  • Several organic solvents were analyzed, and luciferase reporter gene expression was observed after intrapulmonary delivery of solvoplexes containing DPSO (di-n-propylsulfoxide), TMU (tetramethylurea), or BMSO (butylmethylsulfoxide) [4].
  • Under APCI or ESI, the basic TMU dopant is protonated preferentially, and the labile protonated TMU then undergoes dissociation to (CH3)2NCO+, the least acidic and the most transacetalization-reactive acylium ion so far tested [5].
  • These bands were partially or completely displaced by nonradiolabeled respiratory mucin glycopeptides but not by tetramethylurea, suggesting that they recognized carbohydrate sites [6].
  • Virulent bacteria bound to polystyrene through hydrophobic interactions that could be disrupted by treating the organisms with tetramethyl urea [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of TMU


Biological context of TMU


Anatomical context of TMU


Associations of TMU with other chemical compounds

  • Purified A-I and A-II standards were stable for at least 6 months before any change in immunoreactivity was detected if stored at 4 degrees C at concentrations of 0.06-0.24 mg/ml for A-I and 0.016-0.064 mg/dl for A-II in 0.84 M tetramethylurea, 6.4 M urea, and 8 mM Tris-hydrocholoride, pH 8 [13].
  • Plasma lipids were measured using enzymatic methodologies, while the use of a recently described density gradient ultracentrifugation technique allowed detailed examination of lipoprotein composition and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of lipoproteins and tetramethylurea-soluble apoproteins in the fractions [14].
  • DBA2/J mice were inoculated with Friend leukaemia cells grown in tissue culture and at various times thereafter were treated with either N-methylacetamide, dimethylacetamide, or tetramethylurea [15].
  • Pretreatment consisted either of delipidation with an ether/ethanol mixture or tetramethyl urea, or of denaturation by heating the sera to 52 degree C for 3 hours [16].
  • The ligand substitution reaction of [Co(an)6]2+ (an = acetonitrile) with 1,1,3,3-tetramethylurea (TMU) in the noncoordinating solvent, nitromethane, was spectrophotometrically investigated by titration [17].

Gene context of TMU


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TMU

  • The B apoprotein separated from other apoproteins by delipidation and selective precipitation with tetramethylurea could not be distinguished from B apoprotein prepared by the conventional gel filtration technique [22].
  • These findings suggest that some apolipoprotein B in vary low density lipoprotein is not "recognised" by anti-apolipoprotein B antibodies, hence radioimmunoassay results are lower than those obtained with the tetramethylurea extraction method [23].
  • The gelation process of lysozyme in water/tetramethylurea in the presence of salt was investigated as a function of temperature and system composition by rheology, infrared spectroscopy, and microcalorimetry [24].
  • The discrepancies persisted after treatment of serum and isolated fractions with tetramethylurea, urea (9 mol/l), and by heating at 52 degrees C for 3 hours [25].
  • Production or transport of B and C apoproteins in nephrotic rats was also reduced, as indicated by tetramethylurea solubility, incorporation of intraduodenally infused [3H]leucine and staining of the chylomicron proteins on SDS-PAGE gels [26].


  1. Cyclic urea and thiourea derivatives as inducers of murine erythroleukemia differentiation. Li, C., Mella, S.L., Sartorelli, A.C. J. Med. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhalation toxicity of tetramethylurea in rats. O'Neill, A.J., Hansen, J.F., Elliott, G.S., Kennedy, G.L. Drug and chemical toxicology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Binding of nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa to normal human intestinal mucin and respiratory mucin from patients with cystic fibrosis. Sajjan, U., Reisman, J., Doig, P., Irvin, R.T., Forstner, G., Forstner, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Solvoplex: a new type of synthetic vector for intrapulmonary gene delivery. Schughart, K., Bischoff, R., Rasmussen, U.B., Hadji, D.A., Perraud, F., Accart, N., Boussif, O., Silvestre, N., Cordier, Y., Pavirani, A., Kolbe, H.V. Hum. Gene Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Ionic transacetalization with acylium ions: a class-selective and structurally diagnostic reaction for cyclic acetals performed under unique electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in-source ion-molecule reaction conditions. Meurer, E.C., Sabino, A.A., Eberlin, M.N. Anal. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane adhesins for human respiratory mucus glycoproteins. Carnoy, C., Scharfman, A., Van Brussel, E., Lamblin, G., Ramphal, R., Roussel, P. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Adhesion of Yersinia enterocolitica to purified rabbit and human intestinal mucin. Mantle, M., Husar, S.D. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Changes in surface architecture during murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation as detected by lectin binding and agglutination. Sartorelli, A.C. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Serum lipoprotein profiles in mice: effects of early over- and undernutrition. Aubert, R., Camus, M.C., Bourgeois, F., Herzog, J., Lemonnier, D. J. Nutr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Solvent-induced lysozyme gels: rheology, fractal analysis, and sol-gel kinetics. da Silva, M.A., Arêas, E.P. Journal of colloid and interface science. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Developmental toxicity study of tetramethylurea (TMU) in rats. Munley, S.M., O'Neill, A.J., Tyler, D.L., Hurtt, M.E., Kennedy, G.L. Drug and chemical toxicology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of the in vitro adhesion of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to swine alveolar epithelial cells. Van Overbeke, I., Chiers, K., Charlier, G., Vandenberghe, I., Van Beeumen, J., Ducatelle, R., Haesebrouck, F. Vet. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of storage on the measurement of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II by radial immunodiffusion. Albers, J.J., Cheung, M.C., Wahl, P.W. J. Lipid Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Diet-induced and physiologically occurring hypercholesterolemias in the spontaneous hypothyroid European badger (Meles meles L.): a density gradient study of lipoprotein profile. Laplaud, P.M., Beaubatie, L., Maurel, D. J. Lipid Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Inducers of Friend leukaemic cell differentiation in vitro--effects of in vivo administration. Preisler, H.D., Bjornsson, S., Mori, M., Lyman, G.H. Br. J. Cancer (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Electroimmunoassay and radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of high density apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. Mordasini, R.C., Riesen, W.F. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Spectrophotometric analysis of 5-coordinate cobalt(II) species for ligand substitution of hexakis(acetonitrile)cobalt(II) with bulky 1,1,3,3-tetramethylurea in noncoordinating nitromethane. Inada, Y., Hotta, N., Kuwabara, H., Funahashi, S. Analytical sciences : the international journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Further characterization of the changes occurring in the plasma lipoprotein spectrum in the European badger (Meles meles L.) during winter. Laplaud, P.M., Beaubatie, L., Maurel, D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Role of the extracellular matrix on the growth and differentiated phenotype of murine colonic adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Walling, J.M., Blackmore, M., Hickman, J.A., Townsend, K.M. Int. J. Cancer (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. The distribution and partial characterization of the serum apolipoproteins in the guinea pig. Chapman, M.J., Mills, G.L., Ledford, J.H. Biochem. J. (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. ApoLDL: evidence for an aggregating system of heterogeneous subunits. Socorro, L., López, F., López, A., Camejo, G. J. Lipid Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Metabolism of apoprotein B of plasma very low density lipoproteins in the rat. Faergeman, O., Sata, T., Kane, J.P., Havel, R.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Electroimmunoassay of a subunit protein in a macromolecular complex (apolipoprotein B in human plasma very low density lipoprotein); implications for other electroimmunoassay systems. Calvert, G.D., Yeates, R.A., Roeger, D.C. Clin. Chim. Acta (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Solvent-induced lysozyme gels: Effects of system composition and temperature on structural and dynamic characteristics. da Silva, M.A., Farhat, I.A., Ar??as, E.P., Mitchell, J.R. Biopolymers (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Loss of A-apoprotein immunoreactivity during high-density lipoprotein separation. Johnson, P., Muirhead, R.A., Deegan, T. Ann. Clin. Biochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Chylomicron synthesis in experimental nephrotic syndrome. Levy, E., Ziv, E., Bar-On, H., Shafrir, E. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1989) [Pubmed]
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