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Chemical Compound Review

Lymetel     sodium(E,3S,5R)-7-[3-(4- fluorophenyl)-1...

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Disease relevance of Cranoc

  • There were no instances of creatine phosphokinase elevations 10 or more times the upper limit of normal or rhabdomyolysis in the fluvastatin group [1].
  • Administration of fluvastatin to nude mice reduced both metastatic tumor formation in the liver and the growth of established liver metastases at doses recommended for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in humans [2].
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the prognostic power of new fractal and traditional measures of R-R interval variability as predictors of death after acute myocardial infarction [3].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS--Patients in the Lipoprotein and Coronary Atherosclerosis Study (LCAS) had mildly to moderately elevated LDL-C; many also had low HDL-C, providing an opportunity to compare angiographic progression and the benefits of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor fluvastatin in patients with low versus patients with higher HDL-C [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clustering of ventricular ectopy, as measured by the fractal dimension, is observed in patients at increased risk of sudden cardiac death [5].

Psychiatry related information on Cranoc


High impact information on Cranoc

  • The highly nonrandom character of genomic DNA can confound attempts at modeling DNA sequence variation by standard stochastic processes (including random walk or fractal models) [10].
  • In contrast, fluvastatin (mainly metabolized by CYP 2C9) and pravastatin (eliminated by other metabolic routes) are less subject to this interaction [11].
  • Treatment of ASPC-1 cells with fluvastatin markedly attenuated the EGF-induced translocation of RhoA from the cytosol to the membrane fraction and caused cell rounding [2].
  • Inhibitor of proliferation of arterial smooth-muscle cells by fluvastatin [12].
  • Because allosteric proteins constituting receptor channels impose restrictions on the types of model suitable to describe the dynamic response of channels to neurotransmitters, Markovian, non-linear or fractal dynamic models and their possible extension to receptor channel response in excitable membranes are discussed [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cranoc


Biological context of Cranoc


Anatomical context of Cranoc

  • Influence of low HDL on progression of coronary artery disease and response to fluvastatin therapy [4].
  • The spatial patterns formed by the growing neurites were analyzed using conventional and fractal measures (Hausdorff dimension, H) of their extent and complexity [21].
  • The scaling and fractal properties of the mitochondrial network at the edge of instability agree remarkably well with the idea that mitochondria are organized as a percolation matrix, with reactive oxygen species as a key messenger [22].
  • Morphogenesis of the bone marrow: fractal structures and diffusion-limited growth [23].
  • Chimeric mosaic patterns in rat livers have been shown to be isotropic and to have fractal profiles (D approximately 1.3) whereas adrenal gland mosaics show a less irregular radial pattern, with lower fractal dimension (D approximately 1.2) than in the liver [24].

Associations of Cranoc with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Cranoc


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cranoc

  • Here we present a new model of home range-body size scaling based on fractal resource distributions, in which resource encounter rates are a function of body size [6].
  • We find that giant surface-enhanced Raman scattering for adsorbates on silver surfaces is present only on surfaces that exhibit self-similar fractal topology as inferred from atomic force microscopy [35].
  • The treatment effect of fluvastatin on minimum lumen diameter change was significantly greater among low-HDL-C patients than among higher-HDL-C patients (P=0.01); among low-HDL-C patients, fluvastatin patients had improved event-free survival compared with placebo patients [4].
  • A single-blind study with fluvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, was conducted in 64 familial hypercholesterolemia patients who had defined apolipoprotein E (apo E) and apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] isoforms [36].
  • Inhibition of the thrombogenic and inflammatory properties of antiphospholipid antibodies by fluvastatin in an in vivo animal model [37].


  1. Fluvastatin for prevention of cardiac events following successful first percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized controlled trial. Serruys, P.W., de Feyter, P., Macaya, C., Kokott, N., Puel, J., Vrolix, M., Branzi, A., Bertolami, M.C., Jackson, G., Strauss, B., Meier, B. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase inhibitors reduce human pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Kusama, T., Mukai, M., Iwasaki, T., Tatsuta, M., Matsumoto, Y., Akedo, H., Inoue, M., Nakamura, H. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Fractal correlation properties of R-R interval dynamics and mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular function after an acute myocardial infarction. Huikuri, H.V., Mäkikallio, T.H., Peng, C.K., Goldberger, A.L., Hintze, U., Møller, M. Circulation (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Influence of low HDL on progression of coronary artery disease and response to fluvastatin therapy. Ballantyne, C.M., Herd, J.A., Ferlic, L.L., Dunn, J.K., Farmer, J.A., Jones, P.H., Schein, J.R., Gotto, A.M. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Fractal clustering of ventricular ectopy correlates with sympathetic tone preceding ectopic beats. Stein, K.M., Karagounis, L.A., Anderson, J.L., Kligfield, P., Lerman, B.B. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Fractal geometry predicts varying body size scaling relationships for mammal and bird home ranges. Haskell, J.P., Ritchie, M.E., Olff, H. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of alcohol and fluvastatin on lipid metabolism and hepatic function. Smit, J.W., Wijnne, H.J., Schobben, F., Sitsen, A., De Bruin, T.W., Erkelens, D.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Quantification of occipital EEG changes in Alzheimer's disease utilizing a new metric: the fractal dimension. Woyshville, M.J., Calabrese, J.R. Biol. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Analysis of sleep-stage characteristics in full-term newborns by means of spectral and fractal parameters. Carrozzi, M., Accardo, A., Bouquet, F. Sleep. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Patchiness and correlations in DNA sequences. Karlin, S., Brendel, V. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Pharmacological interactions of statins. Paoletti, R., Corsini, A., Bellosta, S. Atherosclerosis. Supplements. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibitor of proliferation of arterial smooth-muscle cells by fluvastatin. Corsini, A., Pazzucconi, F., Pfister, P., Paoletti, R., Sirtori, C.R. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Universality of receptor channel responses. Kardos, J., Nyikos, L. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor-induced RhoA translocation and invasion of human pancreatic cancer cells by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase inhibitors. Kusama, T., Mukai, M., Iwasaki, T., Tatsuta, M., Matsumoto, Y., Akedo, H., Nakamura, H. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Fractal dimension can distinguish models and pharmacologic changes in liver fibrosis in rats. Moal, F., Chappard, D., Wang, J., Vuillemin, E., Michalak-Provost, S., Rousselet, M.C., Oberti, F., Calès, P. Hepatology (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Efficacy and safety of once-daily vs twice-daily dosing with fluvastatin, a synthetic reductase inhibitor, in primary hypercholesterolemia. Insull, W., Black, D., Dujovne, C., Hosking, J.D., Hunninghake, D., Keilson, L., Knopp, R., McKenney, J., Stein, E., Troendle, A.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia: fluvastatin versus bezafibrate. Greten, H., Beil, F.U., Schneider, J., Weisweiler, P., Armstrong, V.W., Keller, C., Klör, H.U., von Hodenberg, E., Weidinger, G., Eskötter, H. Am. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Fluvastatin and niacin in hypercholesterolemia: a preliminary report on gender differences in efficacy. Jacobson, T.A., Jokubaitis, L.A., Amorosa, L.F. Am. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Fractal analysis of proton exchange kinetics in lysozyme. Dewey, T.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Equilibration during mantle melting: a fractal tree model. Hart, S.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of an intrinsic growth strategy by mammalian retinal neurons. Montague, P.R., Friedlander, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Percolation and criticality in a mitochondrial network. Aon, M.A., Cortassa, S., O'Rourke, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Morphogenesis of the bone marrow: fractal structures and diffusion-limited growth. Naeim, F., Moatamed, F., Sahimi, M. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Modeling of mosaic patterns in chimeric liver and adrenal cortex: algorithmic organogenesis? Landini, G., Iannaccone, P.M. FASEB J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Different anti-HCV profiles of statins and their potential for combination therapy with interferon. Ikeda, M., Abe, K., Yamada, M., Dansako, H., Naka, K., Kato, N. Hepatology (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Statins: within-group comparisons, statin escape and combination therapy. Tikkanen, M.J. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Statins prevent endothelial cell activation induced by antiphospholipid (anti-beta2-glycoprotein I) antibodies: effect on the proadhesive and proinflammatory phenotype. Meroni, P.L., Raschi, E., Testoni, C., Tincani, A., Balestrieri, G., Molteni, R., Khamashta, M.A., Tremoli, E., Camera, M. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Apoptosis of rheumatoid synovial cells by statins through the blocking of protein geranylgeranylation: a potential therapeutic approach to rheumatoid arthritis. Nagashima, T., Okazaki, H., Yudoh, K., Matsuno, H., Minota, S. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Interactions between angiotensin-I converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and response of plasma lipids and coronary atherosclerosis to treatment with fluvastatin: the lipoprotein and coronary atherosclerosis study. Marian, A.J., Safavi, F., Ferlic, L., Dunn, J.K., Gotto, A.M., Ballantyne, C.M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Influence of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and cholesterol-lowering activity of (-)-3S,5R-fluvastatin and (+)-3R,5S-fluvastatin in healthy volunteers. Kirchheiner, J., Kudlicz, D., Meisel, C., Bauer, S., Meineke, I., Roots, I., Brockmöller, J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluvastatin. Scripture, C.D., Pieper, J.A. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Fluvastatin increases the expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tissue factor in HUVEC stimulated by patient IgG fractions containing antiphospholipid antibodies. Dunoyer-Geindre, S., Dimitrova, Y., Fish, R.J., Satta, N., Reber, G., Kruithof, E.K., de Moerloose, P. Thromb. Haemost. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Effects of PPARalpha, gamma and delta haplotypes on plasma levels of lipids, severity and progression of coronary atherosclerosis and response to statin therapy in the lipoprotein coronary atherosclerosis study. Chen, S., Tsybouleva, N., Ballantyne, C.M., Gotto, A.M., Marian, A.J. Pharmacogenetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Differential effect of LFA703, pravastatin, and fluvastatin on production of IL-18 and expression of ICAM-1 and CD40 in human monocytes. Takahashi, H.K., Mori, S., Iwagaki, H., Yoshino, T., Tanaka, N., Weitz-Schmidt, G., Nishibori, M. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. The structural basis for giant enhancement enabling single-molecule Raman scattering. Wang, Z., Pan, S., Krauss, T.D., Du, H., Rothberg, L.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Genetic determinants of responsiveness to the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor fluvastatin in patients with molecularly defined heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Leitersdorf, E., Eisenberg, S., Eliav, O., Friedlander, Y., Berkman, N., Dann, E.J., Landsberger, D., Sehayek, E., Meiner, V., Wurm, M. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Inhibition of the thrombogenic and inflammatory properties of antiphospholipid antibodies by fluvastatin in an in vivo animal model. Ferrara, D.E., Liu, X., Espinola, R.G., Meroni, P.L., Abukhalaf, I., Harris, E.N., Pierangeli, S.S. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
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