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Chemical Compound Review

Troxatyl     4-amino-1-[(2S)-2- (hydroxymethyl)-1,3...

Synonyms: Troxacitabine, L-Oddc, Hmd-cytosine, Bch-4556, SureCN1653267, ...
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Disease relevance of L-Oddc


High impact information on L-Oddc


Chemical compound and disease context of L-Oddc


Biological context of L-Oddc

  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The starting dose of troxacitabine was 0.025 mg/m(2), based on toxicology data from the most sensitive species studied (cynomolgus monkey) [8].
  • Sequence analysis of cDNAs encoding dCK revealed a mutation of a highly conserved amino acid (Trp(92)-->Leu) in DU145(R) dCK, providing a possible explanation for the reduced phosphorylation of troxacitabine in DU145(R) lysates [6].
  • RESULTS: Five to nine hundred-fold lower concentrations of troxacitabine were required to inhibit cell growth in human compared with murine tumor and normal hemapoietic cell lines [9].
  • In clonogenic assays, troxacitabine showed activity against mononuclear cells from CML patients (IC50 = 0.01 micromol/l) with either IM-sensitive or resistant disease [10].
  • Analysis of the effect of troxacitabine on the intracellular metabolites of araC revealed that troxacitabine did not inhibit araC deamination and caused a slight decrease in the overall intracellular accumulation of araCTP [11].

Anatomical context of L-Oddc


Associations of L-Oddc with other chemical compounds


Gene context of L-Oddc

  • This unusual property led us to evaluate the efficacy of troxacitabine in multidrug resistant (MDR) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) tumors [16].
  • RESULTS: Troxacitabine demonstrated potent antiproliferative activity against both P-glycoprotein-positive (KBV, HL60/R10, CCRF-CEM/VLB) and P-glycoprotein-negative (HL60/ADR) multidrug-resistant cell lines with IC(50) values ranging from 7 to 171 n M [16].
  • The MTD was defined as 8 mg/m(2)/d. The pharmacokinetic behavior of troxacitabine is linear over the dose range of 0.72 to 10.0 m/m(2) [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Renal function and body surface area were identified as sources of troxacitabine pharmacokinetic variability [14].
  • Troxacitabine, which in contrast to AraC is not a substrate for cytidine deaminase, showed potent in vitro and in vivo activity in the same model (IC50 = 53 nM and T/C = 272% to 422%) [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of L-Oddc

  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between June 1999 and March 2000, 35 patients (24 male) with a mean age of 60 years who had advanced and/or metastatic disease were treated with troxacitabine given as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes at a dose of 10 mg/m2 intravenously, once every 3 weeks [3].
  • The antitumor efficacy of troxacitabine administered either as single or repeated high-dose bolus administrations or as low-dose continuous infusions was evaluated in the human colon HT-29 xenograft model [9].
  • The mean final tumor weights for animals given troxacitabine were also significantly smaller (P < 0.001) compared with vehicle controls [17].
  • The present model may be used to optimize treatment with troxacitabine by developing a dosing strategy based on both renal function and body size [14].
  • Here, we report six cases of troxacitabine-induced PPES that was later recalled by various chemotherapy regimens [18].


  1. Adaptive randomized study of idarubicin and cytarabine versus troxacitabine and cytarabine versus troxacitabine and idarubicin in untreated patients 50 years or older with adverse karyotype acute myeloid leukemia. Giles, F.J., Kantarjian, H.M., Cortes, J.E., Garcia-Manero, G., Verstovsek, S., Faderl, S., Thomas, D.A., Ferrajoli, A., O'Brien, S., Wathen, J.K., Xiao, L.C., Berry, D.A., Estey, E.H. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Troxacitabine, a novel dioxolane nucleoside analog, has activity in patients with advanced leukemia. Giles, F.J., Cortes, J.E., Baker, S.D., Thomas, D.A., O'Brien, S., Smith, T.L., Beran, M., Bivins, C., Jolivet, J., Kantarjian, H.M. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Phase II study of troxacitabine (BCH-4556) in patients with advanced and/or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada-Clinical Trials Group. Townsley, C.A., Chi, K., Ernst, D.S., Belanger, K., Tannock, I., Bjarnason, G.A., Stewart, D., Goel, R., Ruether, J.D., Siu, L.L., Jolivet, J., McIntosh, L., Seymour, L., Moore, M.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Randomized phase I/II study of troxacitabine combined with cytarabine, idarubicin, or topotecan in patients with refractory myeloid leukemias. Giles, F.J., Faderl, S., Thomas, D.A., Cortes, J.E., Garcia-Manero, G., Douer, D., Levine, A.M., Koller, C.A., Jeha, S.S., O'Brien, S.M., Estey, E.H., Kantarjian, H.M. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Troxacitabine, an L-stereoisomeric nucleoside analog, on a five-times-daily schedule: a phase I and pharmacokinetic study in patients with advanced solid malignancies. de Bono, J.S., Stephenson, J., Baker, S.D., Hidalgo, M., Patnaik, A., Hammond, L.A., Weiss, G., Goetz, A., Siu, L., Simmons, C., Jolivet, J., Rowinsky, E.K. J. Clin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Mechanisms of uptake and resistance to troxacitabine, a novel deoxycytidine nucleoside analogue, in human leukemic and solid tumor cell lines. Gourdeau, H., Clarke, M.L., Ouellet, F., Mowles, D., Selner, M., Richard, A., Lee, N., Mackey, J.R., Young, J.D., Jolivet, J., Lafrenière, R.G., Cass, C.E. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparative study of a novel nucleoside analogue (Troxatyl, troxacitabine, BCH-4556) and AraC against leukemic human tumor xenografts expressing high or low cytidine deaminase activity. Gourdeau, H., Bibeau, L., Ouellet, F., Custeau, D., Bernier, L., Bowlin, T. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of novel L-nucleoside analog troxacitabine given as a 30-minute infusion every 21 days. Bélanger, K., Moore, M., Baker, S.D., Dionne, J., Maclean, M., Jolivet, J., Siu, L., Soulières, D., Wainman, N., Seymour, L. J. Clin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Species differences in troxacitabine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: implications for clinical development. Gourdeau, H., Leblond, L., Hamelin, B., Dong, K., Ouellet, F., Boudreau, C., Custeau, D., Richard, A., Gilbert, M.J., Jolivet, J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Troxacitabine and imatinib mesylate combination therapy of chronic myeloid leukaemia: preclinical evaluation. Orsolic, N., Giles, F.J., Gourdeau, H., Golemovic, M., Beran, M., Cortes, J., Freireich, E.J., Kantarjian, H., Verstovsek, S. Br. J. Haematol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Complementary antineoplastic activity of the cytosine nucleoside analogues troxacitabine (Troxatyl) and cytarabine in human leukemia cells. Bouffard, D.Y., Jolivet, J., Leblond, L., Hamelin, B., Ouellet, F., Barbeau, S., Richard, A., Gourdeau, H. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Synergistic antitumor activity of troxacitabine and camptothecin in selected human cancer cell lines. Kim, T.E., Park, S.Y., Hsu, C.H., Dutschman, G.E., Cheng, Y.C. Mol. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Troxacitabine activity in extramedullary myeloid leukemia. Alvarado, Y., Kantarjian, H.M., Cortes, J.E., Apostolidou, E., Bivins, C., Giles, F.J. Hematology (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Population pharmacokinetics of troxacitabine, a novel dioxolane nucleoside analogue. Lee, C.K., Rowinsky, E.K., Li, J., Giles, F., Moore, M.J., Hidalgo, M., Capparelli, E., Jolivet, J., Baker, S.D. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Cortes, J., Kantarjian, H. Semin. Hematol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Antitumor activity of troxacitabine (Troxatyl) against anthracycline-resistant human xenografts. Gourdeau, H., Genne, P., Kadhim, S., Bibeau, L., Duchamp, O., Ouellet, F., deMuys, J.M., Bouffard, D.Y., Attardo, G. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. The new dioxolane, (-)-2'-deoxy-3'-oxacytidine (BCH-4556, troxacitabine), has activity against pancreatic human tumor xenografts. Weitman, S., Marty, J., Jolivet, J., Locas, C., Von Hoff, D.D. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Chemotherapy-induced palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome--recall following different chemotherapy agents. Hui, Y.F., Giles, F.J., Cortes, J.E. Investigational new drugs. (2002) [Pubmed]
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