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Chemical Compound Review

dihydroorotate     2,6-dioxo-1,3-diazinane-4- carboxylate

Synonyms: CHEBI:30867, AC1NUU4D, DNC000559, 4,5-dihydroorotate, 2,6-dioxohexahydropyrimidine-4-carboxylate
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Disease relevance of L-dihydroorotate

  • Lactococcus lactis dihydroorotate dehydrogenase A mutants reveal important facets of the enzymatic function [1].
  • Based on these results and on analysis of published sequences, we propose that the architecture of the deltakappa-enzyme is representative for the dihydroorotate dehydrogenases from Gram-positive bacteria [2].
  • The inhibition of dihydro-orotase (E and dihydroorotate (DHO) dehydrogenase (dihydro-orotate oxidase, EC by cellular orotate (OA) in Ehrlich ascites cells was studied by measuring the accumulation of the intermediates of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis at various times after the addition of 6-azauridine to the culture medium [3].
  • Product inhibition showed that the E. coli enzyme, in contrast to the L. lactis enzyme, has separate binding sites for dihydroorotate and the electron acceptor [4].
  • Biochemical characterization of the heteromeric Bacillus subtilis dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and its isolated subunits [5].

High impact information on L-dihydroorotate


Chemical compound and disease context of L-dihydroorotate

  • The two enzymes represent two distinct evolutionary families of dihydroorotate dehydrogenases, but sedimentation in sucrose gradients suggests a dimeric structure also of the E. coli enzyme [4].
  • Recombinant T. cruzi DHOD1 and DHOD2 expressed in E. coli possess similar enzymatic properties, including optimal pH, optimal temperature, Vmax, and Km for dihydroorotate and fumarate [11].
  • Activities of the five enzymes specific for the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway, aspartate carbamoyl-transferase (ACTase), dihydroorotase (DHOase), dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOdehase), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OMPppase), and orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase (OMPdecase) were found in cell-free extracts of Neisseria meningitidis [12].

Biological context of L-dihydroorotate

  • The pH-rate profiles for the hydrolysis of dihydroorotate or thiodihydroorotate demonstrated that a single group from the enzyme must be unprotonated for maximal catalytic activity [13].
  • Active site of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase A from Lactococcus lactis investigated by chemical modification and mutagenesis [14].
  • We propose that pyrDII encodes a protein subunit of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that catalyzes electron transfer from the pyrDI-encoded subunit to components of the electron transport chain [15].
  • The deletion mutation was not corrected by a plasmid encoding pyrDI, the previously identified gene encoding dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, but was complemented by a plasmid encoding pyrDII [15].
  • Detailed kinetics experiments revealed uncompetitive inhibition with respect to dihydroorotate (Kiu = 0.94 microM) and non-competitive inhibition with respect to decylubiquinone (Kic = 1.09 microM, Kiu = 1.05 microM) [16].

Anatomical context of L-dihydroorotate


Associations of L-dihydroorotate with other chemical compounds


Gene context of L-dihydroorotate


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of L-dihydroorotate


  1. Lactococcus lactis dihydroorotate dehydrogenase A mutants reveal important facets of the enzymatic function. Nørager, S., Arent, S., Björnberg, O., Ottosen, M., Lo Leggio, L., Jensen, K.F., Larsen, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. The B form of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Lactococcus lactis consists of two different subunits, encoded by the pyrDb and pyrK genes, and contains FMN, FAD, and [FeS] redox centers. Nielsen, F.S., Andersen, P.S., Jensen, K.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of 6-azauridine on de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis in cultured Ehrlich ascites cells. Orotate inhibition of dihydroorotase and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Chen, J.J., Jones, M.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. The activity of Escherichia coli dihydroorotate dehydrogenase is dependent on a conserved loop identified by sequence homology, mutagenesis, and limited proteolysis. Björnberg, O., Grüner, A.C., Roepstorff, P., Jensen, K.F. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Biochemical characterization of the heteromeric Bacillus subtilis dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and its isolated subunits. Kahler, A.E., Nielsen, F.S., Switzer, R.L. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. RNA polymerase involvement in the regulation of expression of Salmonella typhimurium pyr genes. Isolation and characterization of a fluorouracil-resistant mutant with high, constitutive expression of the pyrB and pyrE genes due to a mutation in rpoBC. Jensen, K.F., Neuhard, J., Schack, L. EMBO J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibition of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activity by brequinar sodium. Chen, S.F., Perrella, F.W., Behrens, D.L., Papp, L.M. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Intracellular location of the multidomain protein CAD in mammalian cells. Chaparian, M.G., Evans, D.R. FASEB J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Lys-D48 is required for charge stabilization, rapid flavin reduction, and internal electron transfer in the catalytic cycle of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase B of Lactococcus lactis. Combe, J.P., Basran, J., Hothi, P., Leys, D., Rigby, S.E., Munro, A.W., Scrutton, N.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Fluoroorotic acid-selected Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell lines with a stable thymine starvation phenotype have lost the thymine-regulated transcriptional program. Santoso, D., Thornburg, R. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Genetic diversity and kinetic properties of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase isoforms. Sariego, I., Annoura, T., Nara, T., Hashimoto, M., Tsubouchi, A., Iizumi, K., Makiuchi, T., Murata, E., Kita, K., Aoki, T. Parasitol. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Pyrimidine biosynthesis in Neisseria meningitidis. 1. Demonstration of enzyme activities. Jyssum, S. Acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica. Section B, Microbiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Mechanism of the dihydroorotase reaction. Porter, T.N., Li, Y., Raushel, F.M. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Active site of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase A from Lactococcus lactis investigated by chemical modification and mutagenesis. Björnberg, O., Rowland, P., Larsen, S., Jensen, K.F. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of a novel gene of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis, pyrDII, that is required for dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activity in Bacillus subtilis. Kahler, A.E., Switzer, R.L. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Functional expression of a fragment of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase by means of the baculovirus expression vector system, and kinetic investigation of the purified recombinant enzyme. Knecht, W., Bergjohann, U., Gonski, S., Kirschbaum, B., Löffler, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Structural and functional comparison of agents interfering with dihydroorotate, succinate and NADH oxidation of rat liver mitochondria. Jöckel, J., Wendt, B., Löffler, M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Malarial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Substrate and inhibitor specificity. Baldwin, J., Farajallah, A.M., Malmquist, N.A., Rathod, P.K., Phillips, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Insight into the chemistry of flavin reduction and oxidation in Escherichia coli dihydroorotate dehydrogenase obtained by rapid reaction studies. Palfey, B.A., Björnberg, O., Jensen, K.F. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Analysis of pyrimidine synthesis "de novo" intermediates in urine and dried urine filter- paper strips with HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. van Kuilenburg, A.B., van Lenthe, H., Löffler, M., van Gennip, A.H. Clin. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Species-related inhibition of human and rat dihydroorotate dehydrogenase by immunosuppressive isoxazol and cinchoninic acid derivatives. Knecht, W., Löffler, M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Dihydroorotase catalyzes the ring opening of the hydrolysis intermediates of the cardioprotective drug dexrazoxane (ICRF-187). Schroeder, P.E., Davidson, J.N., Hasinoff, B.B. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Nucleotide sequence of the pyrD gene of Escherichia coli and characterization of the flavoprotein dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Larsen, J.N., Jensen, K.F. Eur. J. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Dihydroorotate (dhout) and orotate (orout) utilizer mutants in yeast: identification of the dhout mutation and allelism of the DHO and URE2 genes. Bloch, J.C., Pfeiffer, P., Exinger, F. C. R. Acad. Sci. III, Sci. Vie (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression, purification, and characterization of histidine-tagged rat and human flavoenzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Bader, B., Knecht, W., Fries, M., Löffler, M. Protein Expr. Purif. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of catalytically active hamster dihydroorotase domain in Escherichia coli: purification and characterization. Williams, N.K., Peide, Y., Seymour, K.K., Ralston, G.B., Christopherson, R.I. Protein Eng. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Indirect inhibition of mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activity by nitric oxide. Beuneu, C., Auger, R., Löffler, M., Guissani, A., Lemaire, G., Lepoivre, M. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Thermodynamic basis of electron transfer in dihydroorotate dehydrogenase B from Lactococcus lactis: analysis by potentiometry, EPR spectroscopy, and ENDOR spectroscopy. Mohsen, A.W., Rigby, S.E., Jensen, K.F., Munro, A.W., Scrutton, N.S. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Purification and characterization of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase A from Lactococcus lactis, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the enzyme. Nielsen, F.S., Rowland, P., Larsen, S., Jensen, K.F. Protein Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
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