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Chemical Compound Review

MELANOSTATIN     (2S)-N-[(1S)-1- (aminocarbonylmethylcarbamo...

Synonyms: MIF-I, CHEMBL317488, SureCN362530, HMDB05764, CHEBI:259663, ...
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Disease relevance of MIF-I


Psychiatry related information on MIF-I

  • Five of 8 patients with unipolar or bipolar endogenous depressions taking prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide (MIF-I), 75 mg/day, showed substantial improvement within a few days of beginning treatment compared with similar improvement in only 1 of 10 receiving 750 mg/day of MIF-I and only 1 of 5 patients taking placebo [5].
  • MIF-I antagonized the initial depression of activity and potentiated the increased motor activity phase [6].

High impact information on MIF-I

  • These include beta-endorphin, bombesin, MIF-I, alpha-MSH, neurotensin, TRH, and DSIP [7].
  • The effects of morphine on body temperature provide some notable comparisons with beta-endorphin, as do the similarities between the effects of naloxone and MIF-I [7].
  • Several analogues of L-prolyl-L-leucylglycinamide (PLG) were synthesized wherein the prolyl residue was replaced with other heterocyclic amino acid residues [8].
  • Behaviorally, TRH, LHRH, DDAVP, and MIF-I have general activating effects in human that have not yet been demonstrated to be restricted to or specific to affective illness [9].
  • Also concomitant evaluation of the effect of MIF-I on the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones which are under dopaminergic control i.e., growth hormone and prolactin, did not reveal any potentiation of the L-dopa-induced stimulus [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of MIF-I


Biological context of MIF-I


Anatomical context of MIF-I


Associations of MIF-I with other chemical compounds

  • Development of a radioimmunoassay for Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 (PLG or MIF-I): evidence that PLG is not present in rat brain [17].
  • The daily pretreatment of rats with oxytocin (OXY) or MIF-I prior to ethanol (Et-OH) administration markedly altered the alcohol tolerance when tested on the fifth day of treatment [18].
  • The results suggest that both MIF-I and Alaptide improved an animal's capacity to store information received through olfactory cues [19].

Gene context of MIF-I

  • The effects of beta-endorphin, MIF-I, and alpha-MSH on d-amphetamine- a CPZ-induced hypothermias in rats kept at 4 degrees C were tested in three experimental groups: (a) intact; (b) rats with lesions of the olfactory tubercle; and (c) rats in which the link between the DA mesolimbic pathway and the striatum was disconnected [1].
  • The results indicate that OXY and MIF-I can influence the processes of development of tolerance to some central depressive effects of Et-OH in rats [18].
  • Partially purified LKs contained 2 MIF peaks, namely: MIF-I in LKs-II fraction and MIF-II in LKs-IV fraction [20].
  • It also focuses on recent and new therapeutic approaches: Levodopa in combindation with a Dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor or MAO-B inhibitor, dopamine agonists and an active tripeptide: L-prolyl-L-leucylglycine amide (MIF-I) [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MIF-I

  • Recently it has been suggested that MIF-I can act as an opiate antagonist for analgesia [22].
  • Toxoplasma growth inhibitory factor (Toxo-GIF) in LKs, with a m.w. of 30,000 to 40,000 was found to be contained in LKs-II or MIF-I fraction after Sephadex G-100 gel filtration [23].


  1. Modification of d-amphetamine- or chlorpromazine-induced hypothermia by beta-endorphin, MIF-I, and alpha-MSH: mediation by the dopaminergic system. Yehuda, S., Carasso, R.L. Peptides (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. A comparison between a melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibitory factor (MIF-I) and substances known to activate central dopamine receptors. Cox, B., Kastin, A.J., Schnieden, H. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Inhibition by MIF-I of alpha-MSH induced increase of intraocular pressure and miosis in rabbits. McCullen, R.K., Peiffer, R.L., Jennes, L., Hernandez, D.E. Neuropeptides (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. MSH and MIF-I in animal models of tardive dyskinesia. Davis, K.L., Kastin, A.J., Beilstein, B.A., Vento, A.L. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Dose-related biphasic effect of prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide (MIF-I) in depression. Ehrensing, R.H., Kastin, A.J. The American journal of psychiatry. (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Opiate receptor antagonism by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide, MIF-I. Dickinson, S.L., Slater, P. Peptides (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Peptides and thermoregulation. Yehuda, S., Kastin, A.J. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Synthesis of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 analogues modified at the prolyl residue and evaluation of their effects on the receptor binding activity of the central dopamine receptor agonist, ADTN. Johnson, R.L., Rajakumar, G., Yu, K.L., Mishra, R.K. J. Med. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Peptide challenges in affective illness. Cohen, R.M., Cohen, M.R. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Failure of MIF-I to affect behavioral responses in patients with Parkinson's diseases under L-dopa therapy. Caraceni, T., Parati, E.A., Girotti, F., Celano, I., Frigerio, C., Cocchi, D., Müller, E.E. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. alpha-MSH, MIF-I and melatonin: effects on novelty-induced defecation, plasma 11-OHCS and central catecholamines in rats. Datta, P.C., King, M.G. Peptides (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. The effects of MIF-I, beta-endorphin and alpha-MSH on d-amphetamine induced paradoxical behavioral thermoregulation: possible involvement of the dopaminergic system. Yehuda, S., Sheleff, P. Peptides (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of MIF-I and sex differences on tonic immobility duration in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Cashner, F.M., Olson, R.D., Erickson, D.G., Olson, G.A. Peptides (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. MIF-I's differential actions as an opiate antagonist. Kastin, A.J., Olson, R.D., Ehrensing, R.H., Berzas, M.C., Schally, A.V., Coy, D.H. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Some questions related to melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Kastin, A.J., Sandman, C.A., Miller, L.H., Schally, A.V. Mayo Clin. Proc. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycine amide (MIF-I) on dopaminergic neurons. Kostrzewa, R.M., Spirtes, M.A., Klara, J.W., Christensen, C.W., Kastin, A.J., Joh, T.H. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Development of a radioimmunoassay for Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 (PLG or MIF-I): evidence that PLG is not present in rat brain. Manberg, P.J., Youngblood, W.W., Kizer, J.S. Brain Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of oxytocin and fragment (MIF-I) on the development of tolerance to hypothermic and hypnotic action of ethanol in the rat. Puciłowski, O., Kostowski, W., Trzaskowska, E. Peptides (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Social recognition in male rats: age differences and modulation by MIF-I and Alaptide. Hlinák, Z., Krejcí, I. Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Mouse spleen cell-derived toxoplasma growth inhibitory factor: its separation from macrophage migration inhibitory factor. Nagasawa, H., Igarashi, I., Matsumoto, T., Sakurai, H., Marbella, C., Suzuki, N. Immunobiology (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Progress in understanding and treating Parkinson's disease. Barbeau, A. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Antagonistic actions of MIF-I on the hypothermia and hypomotility induced by beta-endorphin or morphine. Yehuda, S., Kastin, A.J., Coy, D.H. Int. J. Neurosci. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Mouse spleen cell-derived toxoplasma growth inhibitory factor: its effect on toxoplasma multiplication in the mouse kidney cells. Matsumoto, Y., Nagasawa, H., Sakurai, H., Sasaki, S., Suzuki, N. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene. 1. Abt. Originale A, Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Infektionskrankheiten und Parasitologie = International journal of microbiology and hygiene. A, Medical microbiology, infectiousdiseases, para... (1981) [Pubmed]
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