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Gene Review

Ddc  -  dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: AADC, Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, DDC, DOPA decarboxylase
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Disease relevance of Ddc


Psychiatry related information on Ddc


High impact information on Ddc


Chemical compound and disease context of Ddc


Biological context of Ddc


Anatomical context of Ddc


Associations of Ddc with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Ddc


Other interactions of Ddc


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ddc

  • However, MPP(+) induced a transient, concentration-dependent rise of extracellular l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), identified on the basis of dialysate analysis using several HPLC methods and its conversion to DA by purified l-DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) [22].
  • Functionally important residues of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase probed by sequence alignment and site-directed mutagenesis [23].
  • Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA of rat dopa decarboxylase: partial amino acid homologies with other enzymes synthesizing catecholamines [33].
  • Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the major inducible isozymes of P-450 were used to probe Western blots of microsomal protein following DDC analogue treatment [34].
  • Only rats with neutralizing antibody titers of 1:1208 +/- 332 had significantly decreased AADC transgene expression compared to the unimmunized control group [35].


  1. Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, is a beta-cell autoantigen. Rorsman, F., Husebye, E.S., Winqvist, O., Björk, E., Karlsson, F.A., Kämpe, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of dopamine production by genetically modified primary fibroblasts. Kang, U.J., Fisher, L.J., Joh, T.H., O'Malley, K.L., Gage, F.H. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Suppression of L-dopa-induced circling in rats with nigral lesions by blockade of central dopa-decarboxylase: implications for mechanism of action of L-dopa in parkinsonism. Melamed, E., Hefti, F., Bitton, V., Globus, M. Neurology (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional effect of adeno-associated virus mediated gene transfer of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase into the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Sánchez-Pernaute, R., Harvey-White, J., Cunningham, J., Bankiewicz, K.S. Mol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Selective dopaminergic vulnerability: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde targets mitochondria. Kristal, B.S., Conway, A.D., Brown, A.M., Jain, J.C., Ulluci, P.A., Li, S.W., Burke, W.J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Inhibition of brain dopa-decarboxylase by RO 4-4602 infused ICV blocks alcohol drinking induced in rats by cyanamide. Miñano, F.J., Myers, R.D. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Non-effective dose of exogenously applied L-dopa itself stereoselectively potentiates postsynaptic D2 receptor-mediated locomotor activities of conscious rats. Nakamura, S., Yue, J.L., Goshima, Y., Miyamae, T., Ueda, H., Misu, Y. Neurosci. Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Pre-test epinephrine injections reverse DDC-induced retrograde amnesia. Concannon, J.T., Carr, M. Physiol. Behav. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Suppression of noradrenaline synthesis in sympathetic nerves by carbidopa, an inhibitor of peripheral dopa decarboxylase. Wurtman, R.J., Watkins, C.J. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Some neurons of the rat central nervous system contain aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase but not monoamines. Jaeger, C.B., Teitelman, G., Joh, T.H., Albert, V.R., Park, D.H., Reis, D.J. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. An electron microscopic radioautographic identification of the APUD endocrine cells in the rat gastric pyloric glands. Rubin, W., Schwartz, B. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase for dopamine replacement by genetically modified fibroblasts in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Wachtel, S.R., Bencsics, C., Kang, U.J. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Gene expression of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in cultured rat glial cells. Li, X.M., Juorio, A.V., Paterson, I.A., Walz, W., Zhu, M.Y., Boulton, A.A. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Amantadine increases aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase mRNA in PC12 cells. Li, X.M., Juorio, A.V., Qi, J., Boulton, A.A. J. Neurosci. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, monoamine oxidase, malondialdehyde, and acid phosphatase in rat brain capillaries and kidney glomeruli in experimental hypertension. Valli, V.V., Sadasivudu, B. J. Neurosci. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Evidence for L-dopa relevant to modulation of sympathetic activity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats. Yue, J.L., Goshima, Y., Miyamae, T., Misu, Y. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Distinct promoters direct neuronal and nonneuronal expression of rat aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Albert, V.R., Lee, M.R., Bolden, A.H., Wurzburger, R.J., Aguanno, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Circadian rhythm of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: gene expression and decarboxylating activity in clock oscillating cells. Ishida, Y., Yokoyama, C., Inatomi, T., Yagita, K., Dong, X., Yan, L., Yamaguchi, S., Nagatsu, I., Komori, T., Kitahama, K., Okamura, H. Genes Cells (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Tissue-specific expression of the nonneuronal promoter of the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase gene is regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor 1. Aguanno, A., Afar, R., Albert, V.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Isolation of histamine-containing cells from rat gastric mucosa: biochemical and morphologic differences from mast cells. Soll, A.H., Lewin, K.J., Beaven, M.A. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Vesicular monoamine transporter-2 and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase enhance dopamine delivery after L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine administration in Parkinsonian rats. Lee, W.Y., Chang, J.W., Nemeth, N.L., Kang, U.J. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. The parkinsonian neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) mediates release of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) and inhibition of l-DOPA decarboxylase in the rat striatum: a microdialysis study. Foster, S.B., Wrona, M.Z., Han, J., Dryhurst, G. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Functionally important residues of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase probed by sequence alignment and site-directed mutagenesis. Ishii, S., Mizuguchi, H., Nishino, J., Hayashi, H., Kagamiyama, H. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Specific irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitors stimulate gene expression of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in PC12 cells. Li, X.M., Juorio, A.V., Paterson, I.A., Zhu, M.Y., Boulton, A.A. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Progesterone suppresses tyrosine hydroxylase messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the arcuate nucleus on proestrus. Arbogast, L.A., Voogt, J.L. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Mechanisms of the effects of exogenous levodopa on the dopamine-denervated striatum. Lopez, A., Muñoz, A., Guerra, M.J., Labandeira-Garcia, J.L. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of the dopa decarboxylase inhibitor MK-486 on L-dopa-induced inhibition of prolactin secretion: evidence for CNS participation in the L-dopa effects. Szabo, M., Nakawatase, C., Kovathana, N., Frohman, L.A. Neuroendocrinology (1977) [Pubmed]
  28. Postmortem changes in brain catecholamine enzymes. Black, I.B., Geen, S.C. Arch. Neurol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the developing fetal brain. Coulon, J.F., Biguet, N.F., Cavoy, A., Delacour, J., Mallet, J., David, J.C. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Differentiation of mesencephalic progenitor cells into dopaminergic neurons by cytokines. Ling, Z.D., Potter, E.D., Lipton, J.W., Carvey, P.M. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Ectopic expression of non-catecholaminergic tyrosine hydroxylase in rat hypothalamic magnocellular neurons. Marsais, F., Calas, A. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of gliosis on dopamine metabolism in rat striatum. Wang, J., Lieberman, D., Tabubo, H., Finberg, J.P., Oldfield, E.H., Bankiewicz, K.S. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA of rat dopa decarboxylase: partial amino acid homologies with other enzymes synthesizing catecholamines. Tanaka, T., Horio, Y., Taketoshi, M., Imamura, I., Ando-Yamamoto, M., Kangawa, K., Matsuo, H., Kuroda, M., Wada, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Effects of a series of 4-alkyl analogues of 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine on the major inducible cytochrome P-450 isozymes of rat liver. Riddick, D.S., Park, S.S., Gelboin, H.V., Marks, G.S. Mol. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Striatal delivery of rAAV-hAADC to rats with preexisting immunity to AAV. Sanftner, L.M., Suzuki, B.M., Doroudchi, M.M., Feng, L., McClelland, A., Forsayeth, J.R., Cunningham, J. Mol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
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