The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Defecation


Psychiatry related information on Defecation


High impact information on Defecation

  • Mutants defective in the synaptotagmin gene, called snt-1, exhibit severe behavioral abnormalities that are characteristic of deficiencies in synaptic function, including severe locomotion, feeding, and defecation defects [11].
  • Emotionality in mice is such a trait, defined here by covariation in activity and defecation in a novel environment and emergence into the open arms of an elevated plus maze [12].
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans, the melastatin-type transient receptor potential (TRPM) channel, especially TRPM7, was suggested as being involved in defecation rhythm [13].
  • RESULTS: Both rat groups had similar systemic responses to stress, as assessed by changes in weight, corticosterone levels, and defecation [14].
  • The giant migrating contractions initiated by vasopressin may account for the defecation associated with pharmacological doses of vasopressin [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Defecation


Biological context of Defecation


Anatomical context of Defecation


Associations of Defecation with chemical compounds

  • In 85% of experiments with guanethidine, neostigmine, glucose, and castor oil, giant migrating contractions occurred before defecation [30].
  • Associated with these responses, the total volume of infusate tolerated before defecation was less with oleate than with control solutions (311 +/- 21 ml vs. 1049 +/- 71 ml; p less than 0.01) [31].
  • Giant migrating contractions associated with defecation were initiated by the highest dose of vasopressin [15].
  • Fecal propionate was significantly correlated with the percentage of stool retained after defecation (rs = 0.82, p less than 0.01) [32].
  • Antalarmin significantly inhibited a repertoire of behaviors associated with anxiety and fear such as body tremors, grimacing, teeth gnashing, urination, and defecation [33].

Gene context of Defecation

  • To elucidate the mechanism, we studied flr-1 mutants, which show very short defecation cycle periods [34].
  • Here, we show that the flr-4 gene, whose mutants exhibit very short defecation cycle periods, encodes a novel serine/threonine protein kinase with a carboxyl terminal hydrophobic region [35].
  • RNA interference with ubc-25 caused late-onset paralysis of most muscular functions such as locomotion, egg laying, and defecation [36].
  • However, freezing was reduced and flight and escape behavior were increased in GAD65-/- mice compared to their wild type and heterozygous littermates, while corticosterone levels and defecation rates did not differ between genotypes [37].
  • However, CRF hnRNA expression in the pPVN and the rise in corticosterone and defecation induced by WAS or restraint were blunted in colitic rats [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Defecation


  1. Pelvic floor function in multiple sclerosis. Jameson, J.S., Rogers, J., Chia, Y.W., Misiewicz, J.J., Henry, M.M., Swash, M. Gut (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Repeated sensory contact with aggressive mice rapidly leads to an anticipatory increase in core body temperature and physical activity that precedes the onset of aversive responding. Pardon, M.C., Kendall, D.A., Pérez-Diaz, F., Duxon, M.S., Marsden, C.A. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Treatment of GI dysmotility in scleroderma with the new enterokinetic agent prucalopride. Boeckxstaens, G.E., Bartelsman, J.F., Lauwers, L., Tytgat, G.N. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Emesis and defecations induced by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonist zacopride in the ferret. King, G.L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Weekly administration of irinotecan (CPT-11) plus cisplatin for refractory or relapsed small cell lung cancer. Ando, M., Kobayashi, K., Yoshimura, A., Kurimoto, F., Seike, M., Nara, M., Moriyama, G., Mizutani, H., Hibino, S., Gemma, A., Okano, T., Shibuya, M., Kudoh, S. Lung Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Monozygotic vs. dizygotic twin behavior in artificial mouse twins. Baunack, E., Falk, U., Gärtner, K. Genetics (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Impaired proximal colonic motor response to rectal mechanical and chemical stimulation in obstructed defecation. Dinning, P.G., Bampton, P.A., Kennedy, M.L., Lubowski, D.Z., King, D., Cook, I.J. Dis. Colon Rectum (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of prolonged selenium deficiency on open field behavior and Morris water maze performance in mice. Watanabe, C., Satoh, H. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Early handling influences on behavioral and physiological responses during active avoidance. Weinberg, J., Levine, S. Developmental psychobiology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Ortho-iodosobenzoic acid: its acute toxicity and neurobehavioral effects in mice. Liu, W.F., Wei, Y.C., Lee, J.D., Ma, C., Lin, C.H. Toxicol. Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Synaptic function is impaired but not eliminated in C. elegans mutants lacking synaptotagmin. Nonet, M.L., Grundahl, K., Meyer, B.J., Rand, J.B. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. A simple genetic basis for a complex psychological trait in laboratory mice. Flint, J., Corley, R., DeFries, J.C., Fulker, D.W., Gray, J.A., Miller, S., Collins, A.C. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Melastatin-type transient receptor potential channel 7 is required for intestinal pacemaking activity. Kim, B.J., Lim, H.H., Yang, D.K., Jun, J.Y., Chang, I.Y., Park, C.S., So, I., Stanfield, P.R., Kim, K.W. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Chronic stress induces mast cell-dependent bacterial adherence and initiates mucosal inflammation in rat intestine. Söderholm, J.D., Yang, P.C., Ceponis, P., Vohra, A., Riddell, R., Sherman, P.M., Perdue, M.H. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Arginine vasopressin inhibits phasic contractions and stimulates giant contractions in monkey colon. Zhu, Y.R., Cowles, V.E., Herranz, E.S., Schulte, W.J., Condon, R.E. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Oral taurine effects on inhibitory behavior: response transients to step-like schedule changes. Persinger, M.A., Lafrenière, G.F., Falter, H. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Mosapride citrate, a novel 5-HT4 agonist and partial 5-HT3 antagonist, ameliorates constipation in parkinsonian patients. Liu, Z., Sakakibara, R., Odaka, T., Uchiyama, T., Uchiyama, T., Yamamoto, T., Ito, T., Asahina, M., Yamaguchi, K., Yamaguchi, T., Hattori, T. Mov. Disord. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. SR 141716A, a cannabinoid receptor antagonist, reverses the behavioural effects of anandamide-treated rats. Costa, B., Vailati, S., Colleoni, M. Behavioural pharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Opioid peptides and behavioral and physiological responses of dairy cows to social isolation in unfamiliar surroundings. Rushen, J., Boissy, A., Terlouw, E.M., de Passillé, A.M. J. Anim. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. IRI-1, a LIN-15B homologue, interacts with inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptors and regulates gonadogenesis, defecation, and pharyngeal pumping in Caenorhabditis elegans. Walker, D.S., Ly, S., Gower, N.J., Baylis, H.A. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Salivary syndrome in horses: identification of slaframine in red clover hay. Hagler, W.M., Behlow, R.F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Behavioural abnormalities of the hyposulphataemic Nas1 knock-out mouse. Dawson, P.A., Steane, S.E., Markovich, D. Behav. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of neonatal castration and testosterone injection on adult open-field behaviour in rats with atypical sex difference in defecation. Gray, J.A., Drewett, R.F., Lalljee, B. Animal behaviour. (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Behavioral effects of exposure to caffeine during gestation, lactation or both. Hughes, R.N., Beveridge, I.J. Neurotoxicology and teratology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of TAK-637, a novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, on colonic function in vivo. Okano, S., Nagaya, H., Ikeura, Y., Natsugari, H., Inatomi, N. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on the digestive-lysosomal system in Paramecium caudatum. Fok, A.K., Valin, E.L. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist affects fear conditioning through stimulations of the postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors in the hippocampus and amygdala. Li, X., Inoue, T., Abekawa, T., Weng, S., Nakagawa, S., Izumi, T., Koyama, T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Evaluation of the effects of penicillin G potassium and potassium chloride on the motility of the large intestine in horses. Roussel, A.J., Hooper, R.N., Cohen, N.D., Bye, A.D., Hicks, R.J., Schulze, J.L. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Diurnal variation on the excretion patterns of fecal steroids in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) females. Sousa, M.B., Ziegler, T.E. Am. J. Primatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Giant migrating contractions during defecation in the dog colon. Karaus, M., Sarna, S.K. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Decreased fluid tolerance, accelerated transit, and abnormal motility of the human colon induced by oleic acid. Spiller, R.C., Brown, M.L., Phillips, S.F. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Ileal ecology after pouch-anal anastomosis or ileostomy. A study of mucosal morphology, fecal bacteriology, fecal volatile fatty acids, and their interrelationship. Nasmyth, D.G., Godwin, P.G., Dixon, M.F., Williams, N.S., Johnston, D. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Oral administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist significantly attenuates behavioral, neuroendocrine, and autonomic responses to stress in primates. Habib, K.E., Weld, K.P., Rice, K.C., Pushkas, J., Champoux, M., Listwak, S., Webster, E.L., Atkinson, A.J., Schulkin, J., Contoreggi, C., Chrousos, G.P., McCann, S.M., Suomi, S.J., Higley, J.D., Gold, P.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. An ion channel of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel superfamily controls the defecation rhythm in Caenorhabditis elegans. Take-Uchi, M., Kawakami, M., Ishihara, T., Amano, T., Kondo, K., Katsura, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. FLR-4, a novel serine/threonine protein kinase, regulates defecation rhythm in Caenorhabditis elegans. Take-uchi, M., Kobayashi, Y., Kimura, K.D., Ishihara, T., Katsura, I. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. The maintenance of neuromuscular function requires UBC-25 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Schulze, E., Altmann, M.E., Adham, I.M., Schulze, B., Fröde, S., Engel, W. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Altered conditioned fear behavior in glutamate decarboxylase 65 null mutant mice. Stork, O., Yamanaka, H., Stork, S., Kume, N., Obata, K. Genes Brain Behav. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Colitis induces CRF expression in hypothalamic magnocellular neurons and blunts CRF gene response to stress in rats. Kresse, A.E., Million, M., Saperas, E., Taché, Y. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. The 'ileal brake' after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Soper, N.J., Chapman, N.J., Kelly, K.A., Brown, M.L., Phillips, S.F., Go, V.L. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  40. The role of adenosinergic, GABAergic and benzodiazepine systems in hyperemotionality and ulcer formation in stressed rats. Ushijima, I., Mizuki, Y., Hara, T., Kudo, R., Watanabe, K., Yamada, M. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1986) [Pubmed]
  41. Evidence for differential modulation of conditioned aversion and fear-conditioned analgesia by CB1 receptors. Finn, D.P., Beckett, S.R., Richardson, D., Kendall, D.A., Marsden, C.A., Chapman, V. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  42. Investigation of the effects of YM-31636, a novel 5-HT3 receptor agonist, on defecation in normal and constipated ferrets. Ito, H., Kiso, T., Yuki, H., Naitoh, Y., Miyata, K., Iwaoka, K., Yamaguchi, T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  43. Effects of physostigmine on novelty-related location preferences. Hughes, R.N. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1992) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities