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Gene Review

TOB1  -  transducer of ERBB2, 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: APRO6, PIG49, Protein Tob1, TOB, TROB, ...
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Disease relevance of TOB1

  • Using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays, we could reveal a differential mRNA and protein expression of TOB1 in the majority of breast tumors and lymph node metastases compared with normal breast tissues, indicating a potential role of this protein in breast tumorigenesis [1].
  • Tob1 expression was also detected at a decreased level in isolated chondrocytes and in the chondrosarcoma cell line HCS-2/8 [2].

High impact information on TOB1

  • Tob55 is part of the hetero-oligomeric TOB (topogenesis of mitochondrial outer-membrane beta-barrel proteins) or SAM (sorting and assembly of mitochondria) complex, which is present in the mitochondrial outer membrane [3].
  • We have investigated the biogenesis of the TOB complex [4].
  • Of these genes, TOB1 (transducer of ERBB2) was selected for further expression analysis [1].
  • This gene is homologous to the human BTG1, BTG2 and TOB genes which were demonstrated to act as inhibitors of cell proliferation [5].
  • The BTG4 gene, encoding BTG/TOB family protein, as well as the SIK2 gene, encoding salt-inducible serine/threonine kinase 2, were also located within the 11q23.1 region [6].

Biological context of TOB1

  • RESULT(S): Array analyses revealed a cell-cycle regulatory gene, Tob-1, which was differentially expressed by the two cell types after incubation with IL-1beta [7].
  • Altered expression of a cell-cycle suppressor gene, Tob-1, in endometriotic cells by cDNA array analyses [7].
  • Altogether, the downregulation of the expression of Tob1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes might be an important aspect of the cellular processes taking place during osteoarthritic cartilage degeneration [2].
  • Activation, the reinitiation of proliferative activity and the loss of a stable phenotype are three major changes in osteoarthritic chondrocytes that are highly significantly correlated with the repression of Tob1 expression [2].

Anatomical context of TOB1

  • Replicate Northern analyses (n = 4) showed that exposure to IL-1beta for 12 hours resulted in a 25% +/- 5% diminution of Tob-1 mRNA in endometriotic stromal cells [7].
  • Seventy-four patients received 250 units (3.3 units/pt) of Group O red blood cells (TOB), and nine patients received 27 units of type-specific blood (TSB) (3.0 units/pt) [8].
  • In addition, the ceramic material was osteoconductive and animals in TCPL + TOB and TCPL carrier alone showed evidence of osteoblast alkaline phosphatase activity for a period of 15 weeks [9].

Associations of TOB1 with chemical compounds

  • On consecutive mornings the patients were given either tobramycin intravenously (i.v.) over 3-5 min (TOB phase), or tobramycin i.v. over 3-5 min followed immediately by ticarcillin infused i.v. over 20-30 min (TOB+TIC phase) [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TOB1

  • To study the safety of TOB used as an immediate resuscitation component, a 30-month prospective study of all patients arriving at a single trauma unit was undertaken [11].
  • Northern blotting and subsequent quantitative densitometric evaluation was done to confirm steady-state levels of Tob-1 mRNA transcripts [7].
  • The repression of Tob1 was confirmed by quantitative PCR and correlated to markers of chondrocyte activity and proliferation in vivo [2].


  1. Profile of differentially expressed genes after transfer of chromosome 17 into the breast cancer cell line CAL51. Klebig, C., Seitz, S., Korsching, E., Kristiansen, G., Gustavus, D., Scherneck, S., Petersen, I. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Repression of anti-proliferative factor Tob1 in osteoarthritic cartilage. Gebauer, M., Saas, J., Haag, J., Dietz, U., Takigawa, M., Bartnik, E., Aigner, T. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Biogenesis of beta-barrel membrane proteins of mitochondria. Paschen, S.A., Neupert, W., Rapaport, D. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Assembly of the TOB complex of mitochondria. Habib, S.J., Waizenegger, T., Lech, M., Neupert, W., Rapaport, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning of the mouse BTG3 gene and definition of a new gene family (the BTG family) involved in the negative control of the cell cycle. Guéhenneux, F., Duret, L., Callanan, M.B., Bouhas, R., Hayette, S., Berthet, C., Samarut, C., Rimokh, R., Birot, A.M., Wang, Q., Magaud, J.P., Rouault, J.P. Leukemia (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification and characterization of human KIAA1391 and mouse Kiaa1391 genes encoding novel RhoGAP family proteins with RA domain and ANXL repeats. Katoh, M., Katoh, M. Int. J. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Altered expression of a cell-cycle suppressor gene, Tob-1, in endometriotic cells by cDNA array analyses. Lebovic, D.I., Baldocchi, R.A., Mueller, M.D., Taylor, R.N. Fertil. Steril. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Immediate trauma resuscitation with type O uncrossmatched blood: a two-year prospective experience. Schwab, C.W., Shayne, J.P., Turner, J. The Journal of trauma. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Targeted sustained delivery of tobramycin at the site of a femoral osteotomy. Benghuzzi, H., Tucci, M., Russell, G., Ragab, A., Graves, M., Conflitti, J. Biomedical sciences instrumentation. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. An in vivo assessment of the tobramycin/ticarcillin interaction in cystic fibrosis patients. Roberts, G.W., Nation, R.L., Jarvinen, A.O., Martin, A.J. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Saline-expanded group O uncrossmatched packed red blood cells as an initial resuscitation fluid in severe shock. Schwab, C.W., Civil, I., Shayne, J.P. Annals of emergency medicine. (1986) [Pubmed]
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