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Gene Review

araC  -  DNA-binding transcriptional regulator AraC

Escherichia coli CFT073

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Disease relevance of araC


High impact information on araC


Chemical compound and disease context of araC


Biological context of araC

  • In vitro protection studies with DNase I and dimethylsulfate showed that araC protein can specifically bind in this area to nucleotides lying at position -265 to -294 with respect to the araBAD operon promoter (PBAD) transcription start point [12].
  • A deletion which does not recombine with any known point mutation in araC, delta(araCO)719, removes all but the last 22 codons of the gene [8].
  • Equilibrium binding constraints and kinetics were determined for araC protein binding to the araI and the araO1 sites [13].
  • The mechanisms of induction and repression were studied by observing the multiple interactions of RNA polymerase, cyclic AMP receptor protein and araC protein with short DNA fragments containing either the araC or araBAD promoter regions [13].
  • These results suggest a complex mechanism for the inhibition of DNA replication by araC when it is misincorporated into DNA [14].

Anatomical context of araC


Associations of araC with chemical compounds

  • In the presence of inducer, L-arabinose, araC protein binds with equal affinity to DNA fragments containing either of these sites [13].
  • Regulation of the regulatory gene for the arabinose pathway, araC [16].
  • Cytosine arabinoside (araC) is a potent antileukemic agent that is misincorporated into DNA in the course of its action [14].
  • The aralc mutations allow low-level constitutive expression of ara-BAD in the absence of the positive regulatory protein coded for by the araC gene, whereas the araXc mutations allow expression of araBAD in the absence of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate receptor protein [17].
  • The mutations were isolated on an araC-containing plasmid by hydroxylamine mutagenesis of plasmid DNA [18].

Other interactions of araC


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of araC


  1. The araC promoter: transcription, mapping and interaction with the araBAD promoter. Hirsh, J., Schleif, R. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. The araC gene of Citrobacter freundii. Burke, K.A., Wilcox, G. Gene (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Overproducing araC protein with lambda-arabinose transducing phage. Steffen, D., Schleif, R. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. An improved DNA sequencing strategy. Lin, H.C., Lei, S.P., Wilcox, G. Anal. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. The nucleotide sequence of the araC regulatory gene in Salmonella typhimurium LT2. Clarke, P., Lin, H.C., Wilcox, G. Gene (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Activation of ara operons by a truncated AraC protein does not require inducer. Menon, K.P., Lee, N.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. The Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon: binding sites of the regulatory proteins and a mechanism of positive and negative regulation. Ogden, S., Haggerty, D., Stoner, C.M., Kolodrubetz, D., Schleif, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. DNA sequence of the araC regulatory gene from Escherichia coli B/r. Miyada, C.G., Horwitz, A.H., Cass, L.G., Timko, J., Wilcox, G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Use of the arabinose p(bad) promoter for tightly regulated display of proteins on bacteriophage. Huang, W., McKevitt, M., Palzkill, T. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Stabilization and size of araC protein. Wilcox, G., Meuris, P. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. In vitro construction of plasmids which result in overproduction of the protein product of the araC gene of Escherichia coli. Steffen, D., Schleif, R. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. An operator at -280 base pairs that is required for repression of araBAD operon promoter: addition of DNA helical turns between the operator and promoter cyclically hinders repression. Dunn, T.M., Hahn, S., Ogden, S., Schleif, R.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulation of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose operon studied by gel electrophoresis DNA binding assay. Hendrickson, W., Schleif, R.F. J. Mol. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Functional consequences of the arabinosylcytosine structural lesion in DNA. Mikita, T., Beardsley, G.P. Biochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Construction and characterization of regulated L-arabinose-inducible broad host range expression vectors in Xanthomonas. Sukchawalit, R., Vattanaviboon, P., Sallabhan, R., Mongkolsuk, S. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of the regulatory gene for the arabinose pathway, araC. Casadaban, M.J. J. Mol. Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequence of araBAD promoter mutants of Escherichia coli. Horwitz, A.H., Morandi, C., Wilcox, G. J. Bacteriol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Mutations in the araC regulatory gene of Escherichia coli B/r that affect repressor and activator functions of AraC protein. Cass, L.G., Wilcox, G. J. Bacteriol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. High-level expression and purification of mature HIV-1 protease in Escherichia coli under control of the araBAD promoter. Taylor, A., Brown, D.P., Kadam, S., Maus, M., Kohlbrenner, W.E., Weigl, D., Turon, M.C., Katz, L. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. In vivo titration of araC protein. Haggerty, D.M., Oeschger, M.P., Schleif, R.F. J. Bacteriol. (1978) [Pubmed]
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