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Gene Review

Iars  -  isoleucine-tRNA synthetase

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2510016L12Rik, AI327140, AU044614, E430001P04Rik, ILRS, ...
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Disease relevance of Iars


High impact information on Iars

  • G ialpha2 deficiency increases protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity and attenuates insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS (insulin-receptor substrate 1) in vivo [4].
  • We identified the point of divergence, leading to these differences between keratinocytes and fibroblasts, at the IRS-PI 3-kinase association step [5].
  • Expression of IRS-3 is restricted mainly to white adipose tissue; expression of this IRS protein is virtually absent in brown adipocytes [6].
  • Reporter gene expression was also increased 2-fold in transgenic obese diabetic db/db mice bearing a mutation in the IRS, -2000(IRS)-hGx, compared with non-obese non-diabetic transgenic 2000(IRS)-hGx mice [7].
  • Mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the IGF-IR abrogate translocation of the IRS proteins [8].

Biological context of Iars

  • In the present study, we examined the effects of insulin on immediate-early gene egr-1 and c-fos expression in 32D cells overexpressing the insulin receptor (32D/IR), IRS-1 (32D/IRS), or both (32D/IR+IRS) and compared these effects with insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation [9].
  • Among the four IRS proteins identified so far, IRS-3 exhibits a rather peculiar expression pattern during both the embryonic development and adult life, suggesting a different mechanism of regulation of its expression [10].
  • Using the M12 mouse lymphoid cell line, we have determined an IL-4 response sequence (ILRS) in the proximal promoter region of the E alpha class II gene [11].
  • IRS-proteins couple the receptors for insulin and various cytokines to signalling proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains [12].
  • Individual IRS fragments are hybridized against high-density spotted filter grids containing the three-dimensional permutated pools of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library resources that are currently being used to construct a physical map of the mouse genome [13].

Anatomical context of Iars


Associations of Iars with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Iars

  • Insulin (17 nM) increased egr-1 and c-fos expression in 32D/IR and 32D/IR+IRS cells, but not in parental cells or 32D/IRS cells, as determined by Northern blot analysis [9].
  • MS-IRS PCR: a simple method for the isolation of microsatellites [17].
  • In contrast, the induction of IRS-2 synthesis was similar in LIGFREKO and control groups, suggesting the existence of differential regulation of IRS synthesis during liver regeneration [18].


  1. Deletion of SOCS7 leads to enhanced insulin action and enlarged islets of Langerhans. Banks, A.S., Li, J., McKeag, L., Hribal, M.L., Kashiwada, M., Accili, D., Rothman, P.B. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunoreactive thymopoietin in the mouse central nervous system. Brown, R.H., Schweitzer, J.S., Audhya, T., Goldstein, G., Dichter, M.A. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Trichomonas vaginalis: evaluating capsid proteins of dsRNA viruses and the dsRNA virus within patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Alderete, J.F., Wendel, K.A., Rompalo, A.M., Erbelding, E.J., Benchimol, M., Chang, T.H. Exp. Parasitol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Insulin action impaired by deficiency of the G-protein subunit G ialpha2. Moxham, C.M., Malbon, C.C. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Insulin receptor substrate 2 plays diverse cell-specific roles in the regulation of glucose transport. Sadagurski, M., Weingarten, G., Rhodes, C.J., White, M.F., Wertheimer, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of IRS-3 in the insulin signaling of IRS-1-deficient brown adipocytes. Arribas, M., Valverde, A.M., Benito, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene transcription and hyperglycemia are regulated by glucocorticoids in genetically obese db/db transgenic mice. Friedman, J.E., Sun, Y., Ishizuka, T., Farrell, C.J., McCormack, S.E., Herron, L.M., Hakimi, P., Lechner, P., Yun, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Insulin-like growth factor I receptor signaling and nuclear translocation of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2. Sun, H., Tu, X., Prisco, M., Wu, A., Casiburi, I., Baserga, R. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Insulin-induced egr-1 and c-fos expression in 32D cells requires insulin receptor, Shc, and mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation. Harada, S., Smith, R.M., Smith, J.A., White, M.F., Jarett, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning of the mouse insulin receptor substrate-3 (mIRS-3) promoter, and its regulation by p53. Sciacchitano, S., Orecchio, A., Lavra, L., Misiti, S., Giacchini, A., Zani, M., Danese, D., Gurtner, A., Soddu, S., Di Mario, U., Andreoli, M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. A novel IL-4 responsive element of the E alpha MHC class II promoter that binds to an inducible factor. Kretsovali, A., Papamatheakis, J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Ca2+ regulates calmodulin binding to IQ motifs in IRS-1. Munshi, H.G., Burks, D.J., Joyal, J.L., White, M.F., Sacks, D.B. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Technology development at the interface of proteome research and genomics: mapping nonpolymorphic proteins on the physical map of mouse chromosomes. Nock, C., Gauss, C., Schalkwyk, L.C., Klose, J., Lehrach, H., Himmelbauer, H. Electrophoresis (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular mechanism(s) of burn-induced insulin resistance in murine skeletal muscle: role of IRS phosphorylation. Zhang, Q., Carter, E.A., Ma, B.Y., White, M., Fischman, A.J., Tompkins, R.G. Life Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Improvement of glucose tolerance and hepatic insulin sensitivity by oligofructose requires a functional glucagon-like Peptide 1 receptor. Cani, P.D., Knauf, C., Iglesias, M.A., Drucker, D.J., Delzenne, N.M., Burcelin, R. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. IL-4 induces serine phosphorylation of the STAT6 transactivation domain in B lymphocytes. Wick, K.R., Berton, M.T. Mol. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. MS-IRS PCR: a simple method for the isolation of microsatellites. Phan, J., Reue, K., Péterfy, M. BioTechniques (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration is impaired in mice with liver-specific IGF-1R knockout. Desbois-Mouthon, C., Wendum, D., Cadoret, A., Rey, C., Leneuve, P., Blaise, A., Housset, C., Tronche, F., Le Bouc, Y., Holzenberger, M. FASEB J. (2006) [Pubmed]
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