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Gene Review

SCO2083  -  sporulation protein

Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

Synonyms: SC4A10.16c, ftsQ
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Disease relevance of SCO2083

  • We show that the cell division gene ftsQ of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is dispensable for growth and viability but is needed during development for the efficient conversion of aerial filaments into spores [1].
  • Our experiments paint a picture of a novel protein family that acts through timing and localization of the activity of penicillin-binding proteins and autolysins, thus controlling important steps during the initiation and the completion of sporulation in actinomycetes [2].
  • With a vector derived from the temperate bacteriophage phi C31, a 5.6-kilobase fragment of wildtype DNA was cloned which restored sporulation to five independent bldA mutants when lysogenized with the recombinant phage [3].
  • WhiA, a protein of unknown function conserved among gram-positive bacteria, is essential for sporulation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) [4].
  • In this study, we have analyzed an ORF from Corynebacterium glutamicum, which codes for a homologue of the Streptomyces coelicolor WhiB-family of proteins known to be involved in sporulation [5].

High impact information on SCO2083

  • The sporulation mutant harbored an insertion in one of three adjacent genes that are apparently unique to Streptomyces but are each represented by at least 20 paralogs at dispersed locations in the chromosome [6].
  • Using DNA microarrays to globally identify S. coelicolor genes whose transcription was affected by ramR mutation or overexpression, we discovered a ramR-activated locus of contiguous cotranscribed developmental genes that modulate both aerial hyphae formation and sporulation [7].
  • While SsgA and SsgB are essential for sporulation-specific cell division in Streptomyces coelicolor, SsgC-G are responsible for correct DNA segregation/condensation (SsgC), spore wall synthesis (SsgD), autolytic spore separation (SsgE, SsgF) or exact septum localization (SsgG) [2].
  • Remarkably, SapB and SapT, and the fungal hydrophobin SC3 were shown to restore to a SapB-deficient S. coelicolor mutant the capacity to undergo complete morphogenesis, such that the extracellular addition of protein resulted in sporulation [8].
  • In contrast, sporulation septation was almost completely abolished, resulting in a phenotype reminiscent of whiH and ftsZdelta2p mutants [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of SCO2083

  • The optically active form of tritium-labeled A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone), a pleiotropic autoregulator responsible for streptomycin production, streptomycin resistance, and sporulation in Streptomyces griseus, was chemically synthesized [10].
  • Disruption of the orthologous gene in Streptomyces coelicolor indicates that whereas CrgA is not essential for sporulation in this species, during growth on glucose-containing media, it influences the timing of the onset of reproductive growth, with precocious erection of aerial hyphae and antibiotic production by the mutant [11].
  • The AIB factor produced by the tested microorganisms on an agar media allows for germination, growth, and sporulation of the testing Streptomyces coelicolor on an agar medium containing 20 mmol/L acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, valerate, isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyrate [12].

Biological context of SCO2083

  • This upregulation required all the six early regulatory sporulation genes that were tested: whiA, B, G, H, I and J [13].
  • The results suggest that cytokinesis may be developmentally controlled at the level of Z-ring assembly during sporulation of S. coelicolor A3(2) [9].
  • No significant alterations were observed when the gene dosage of ftsQ was increased [14].
  • Consistent with this idea, introduction of cprA on a low-copy-number plasmid into the parental strain led to overproduction of these secondary metabolites and accelerated the timing of sporulation [15].
  • Morphological changes leading to aerial mycelium formation and sporulation in the mycelial bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor rely on establishing distinct patterns of gene expression in separate regions of the colony. sigmaH was identified previously as one of three paralogous sigma factors associated with stress responses in S. coelicolor [16].

Anatomical context of SCO2083


Associations of SCO2083 with chemical compounds

  • Together with the observation that VB-C had almost no biological activity on the restoration of streptomycin production or sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant of S. griseus, these results indicated that the binding protein had a strict ligand specificity [10].
  • These strains were unaffected in growth and sporulation, demonstrating that the histidine-tagged RNA polymerase was competent to carry out all essential in-vivo functions [18].
  • Although DeltabldC mutants produced the tripyrrole antibiotic undecylprodigiosin, transcripts of the pathway-specific activator gene (redD) were reduced to almost undetectable levels after 48 h in the bldC mutant, in contrast to the bldC+ parent strain in which redD transcription continued during aerial mycelium formation and sporulation [19].

Regulatory relationships of SCO2083


Other interactions of SCO2083


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SCO2083


  1. Cell division gene ftsQ is required for efficient sporulation but not growth and viability in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). McCormick, J.R., Losick, R. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. SsgA-like proteins determine the fate of peptidoglycan during sporulation of Streptomyces coelicolor. Noens, E.E., Mersinias, V., Traag, B.A., Smith, C.P., Koerten, H.K., van Wezel, G.P. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Phage-mediated cloning of bldA, a region involved in Streptomyces coelicolor morphological development, and its analysis by genetic complementation. Piret, J.M., Chater, K.F. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. WhiA, a protein of unknown function conserved among gram-positive bacteria, is essential for sporulation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Aínsa, J.A., Ryding, N.J., Hartley, N., Findlay, K.C., Bruton, C.J., Chater, K.F. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The whcE gene of Corynebacterium glutamicum is important for survival following heat and oxidative stress. Kim, T.H., Park, J.S., Kim, H.J., Kim, Y., Kim, P., Lee, H.S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Genomewide insertional mutagenesis in Streptomyces coelicolor reveals additional genes involved in morphological differentiation. Gehring, A.M., Nodwell, J.R., Beverley, S.M., Losick, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. rag genes: novel components of the RamR regulon that trigger morphological differentiation in Streptomyces coelicolor. San Paolo, S., Huang, J., Cohen, S.N., Thompson, C.J. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. SapT, a lanthionine-containing peptide involved in aerial hyphae formation in the streptomycetes. Kodani, S., Lodato, M.A., Durrant, M.C., Picart, F., Willey, J.M. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. A missense mutation in ftsZ differentially affects vegetative and developmentally controlled cell division in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Grantcharova, N., Ubhayasekera, W., Mowbray, S.L., McCormick, J.R., Flärdh, K. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Detection and properties of A-factor-binding protein from Streptomyces griseus. Miyake, K., Horinouchi, S., Yoshida, M., Chiba, N., Mori, K., Nogawa, N., Morikawa, N., Beppu, T. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. The product of a developmental gene, crgA, that coordinates reproductive growth in Streptomyces belongs to a novel family of small actinomycete-specific proteins. Del Sol, R., Pitman, A., Herron, P., Dyson, P. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Activity of the AIB factor observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Pospísil, S., Vánová, M., Machurová, V. Folia Microbiol. (Praha) (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Generation of a non-sporulating strain of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by the manipulation of a developmentally controlled ftsZ promoter. Flärdh, K., Leibovitz, E., Buttner, M.J., Chater, K.F. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of increased and deregulated expression of cell division genes on the morphology and on antibiotic production of streptomycetes. van Wezel, G.P., van der Meulen, J., Taal, E., Koerten, H., Kraal, B. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Involvement of two A-factor receptor homologues in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in the regulation of secondary metabolism and morphogenesis. Onaka, H., Nakagawa, T., Horinouchi, S. Mol. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. A connection between stress and development in the multicellular prokaryote Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Kelemen, G.H., Viollier, P.H., Tenor, J., Marri, L., Buttner, M.J., Thompson, C.J. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Two new loci affecting cell division identified as suppressors of an ftsQ-null mutation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Bennett, J.A., McCormick, J.R. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of the rpoC gene of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and its use to develop a simple and rapid method for the purification of RNA polymerase. Babcock, M.J., Buttner, M.J., Keler, C.H., Clarke, B.R., Morris, R.A., Lewis, C.G., Brawner, M.E. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. The bldC developmental locus of Streptomyces coelicolor encodes a member of a family of small DNA-binding proteins related to the DNA-binding domains of the MerR family. Hunt, A.C., Servín-González, L., Kelemen, G.H., Buttner, M.J. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Developmental control of a parAB promoter leads to formation of sporulation-associated ParB complexes in Streptomyces coelicolor. Jakimowicz, D., Mouz, S., Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, J., Chater, K.F. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning and characterization of a gene involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. Kudo, N., Kimura, M., Beppu, T., Horinouchi, S. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification of bldA mutants of Streptomyces griseus. Kwak, J., McCue, L.A., Kendrick, K.E. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. The interplay of glycogen metabolism and differentiation provides an insight into the developmental biology of Streptomyces coelicolor. Yeo, M., Chater, K. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. The Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB gene is required for early stages of sporulation. Keijser, B.J., Noens, E.E., Kraal, B., Koerten, H.K., van Wezel, G.P. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) wblE gene, encoding a homologue of the sporulation transcription factor. Homerová, D., Sevcíková, J., Kormanec, J. Folia Microbiol. (Praha) (2003) [Pubmed]
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