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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Mycelium

  • PCR-based and Southern analysis of various actinomycetes, supported by analysis of genome sequences, revealed mreB homologues only in genera that form an aerial mycelium and sporulate [1].
  • The hybridomas were screened with a cold alkali (CA) extract of mycelium containing protein, mannose, and galactose, and two MAbs of the immunoglobulin M class were purified from ascites fluid [2].
  • Characterization of an A-factor-responsive repressor for amfR essential for onset of aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus [3].
  • Autolysis of mycelia after the stationary phase in submerged cultures was apparently retarded by the addition of leupeptin; on surface cultures, aerial mycelium formation was clearly retarded by the addition of leupeptin [4].
  • We report the development of two new transformation systems, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation of protoplasts and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of mycelium, for the filamentous ascomycete Venturia inaequalis [5].

High impact information on Mycelium

  • These observations implicate the chaplins in aerial mycelium formation, and suggest that coating of the envelope by the chaplins is required for aerial hyphae to grow out of the aqueous environment of the substrate mycelium into the air [6].
  • M. grisea deltaosm1 mutants showed a dramatically reduced ability to accumulate arabitol in the mycelium [7].
  • As in yeast, gluconeogenic substrates lead to the synthesis of trehalose, which also occurs when mycelium is grown on acetate/sucrose under limiting aeration [8].
  • A transient formation of trehalose has been observed upon incubation of starved mycelium, cultured on different substrates, with [13C]glucose [8].
  • The DNA polymerase a is mainly produced in the exponentially growing mycelium [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Mycelium


Biological context of Mycelium


Anatomical context of Mycelium

  • Penitrem A (400 mg mycelium/kg) increased the spontaneous release of endogenous glutamate, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and aspartate by 213%, 455%, and 277%, respectively, from cerebrocortical synaptosomes [17].
  • Surprisingly, mycelium of the double Deltacat1Deltacat2 mutant with no catalase activity exhibited only slightly increased sensitivity to H(2)O(2) and was as sensitive to killing by polymorphonuclear neutrophils as mycelium of the wild-type strain [18].
  • The purified appressoria can be used for studies of their cell surface, and we have shown that there are clear differences in the glycoprotein constituents of cell walls of appressoria compared with mycelium [19].
  • 3H- and 14C-labeled zearalenone were found to bind preferentially to one of two peaks containing uncharacterized proteins obtained from the cytosol of young mycelium and resolved by gel column chromatography [20].
  • Because ad-3 mutations are recovered by a direct method, based on the accumulation of a reddish-purple pigment in the vacuoles of the mycelium rather than their requirement for adenine, this system is both a morphological and biochemical specific-locus assay [21].

Associations of Mycelium with chemical compounds

  • The formation of the enzyme is repressed when S. antibioticus mycelium is grown on glucose as a carbon source [22].
  • It is feedback-inhibited by L-arginine (I0.5 = 0.16 mM), and its specific activity is augmented 2-3-fold by arginine starvation of the mycelium [23].
  • Nitrate reductase (NADPH:nitrate oxidoreductase; EC was purified to apparent homogeneity from mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum [24].
  • Enzyme was extracted from dry mycelium using a buffer with a high glycerol concentration and thiol protective agent to stabilize enzyme activity [25].
  • The accumulation of dGTP was a cause for the impaired ability of KO-390 to produce aerial mycelium, because the ability to form aerial mycelium was completely repaired by addition of decoyinine, an inhibitor of GMP synthetase [26].

Gene context of Mycelium

  • A strain in which the ftsZ2p promoter was inactivated grew normally during vegetative growth and formed aerial mycelium, but was deficient in sporulation septation [27].
  • In addition, at the normal growth temperature of 30 degrees C, dnaK transcript levels were shown to vary at different stages of development, being more abundant in young germinating cultures and in mycelium undergoing sporogenesis [28].
  • Unlike the RAD52 transcript in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mus-11 transcript could not be detected in mycelium under normal growth conditions, but expression of the gene was induced by UV irradiation or treatment with MMS [29].
  • Activities of TP (measured in the direction of trehalose degradation), MD, and G6PD were higher in the hyphal aggregates compared with the mycelium, whereas HK activity varied little [30].
  • We used actin staining and videomicroscopy to analyze the development from a spore to a young mycelium in the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mycelium


  1. MreB of Streptomyces coelicolor is not essential for vegetative growth but is required for the integrity of aerial hyphae and spores. Mazza, P., Noens, E.E., Schirner, K., Grantcharova, N., Mommaas, A.M., Koerten, H.K., Muth, G., Flärdh, K., van Wezel, G.P., Wohlleben, W. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to cell wall antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus. Ste-Marie, L., Sénéchal, S., Boushira, M., Garzon, S., Strykowski, H., Pedneault, L., de Repentigny, L. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of an A-factor-responsive repressor for amfR essential for onset of aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. Ueda, K., Hsheh, C.W., Tosaki, T., Shinkawa, H., Beppu, T., Horinouchi, S. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Physiological roles of leupeptin and extracellular proteases in mycelium development of Streptomyces exfoliatus SMF13. Kim, I.S., Lee, K.J. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Agrobacterium and PEG-mediated transformation of the phytopathogen Venturia inaequalis. Fitzgerald, A.M., Mudge, A.M., Gleave, A.P., Plummer, K.M. Mycol. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The chaplins: a family of hydrophobic cell-surface proteins involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces coelicolor. Elliot, M.A., Karoonuthaisiri, N., Huang, J., Bibb, M.J., Cohen, S.N., Kao, C.M., Buttner, M.J. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Independent signaling pathways regulate cellular turgor during hyperosmotic stress and appressorium-mediated plant infection by Magnaporthe grisea. Dixon, K.P., Xu, J.R., Smirnoff, N., Talbot, N.J. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. 13C NMR studies of carbon metabolism in the hyphal fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Dijkema, C., Kester, H.C., Visser, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Meiosis in Coprinus: characterization and activities of two forms of DNA polymerase during meiotic stages. Sakaguchi, K., Lu, B.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Control by A-factor of a metalloendopeptidase gene involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. Kato, J.Y., Suzuki, A., Yamazaki, H., Ohnishi, Y., Horinouchi, S. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Cloning and characterization of the A-factor receptor gene from Streptomyces griseus. Onaka, H., Ando, N., Nihira, T., Yamada, Y., Beppu, T., Horinouchi, S. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Autoradiographic study of hyphal growth during aerial mycelium development in Streptomyces antibioticus. Miguelez, E.M., García, M., Hardisson, C., Manzanal, M.B. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. A new genus of the order Actinomycetales, Couchioplanes gen. nov., with descriptions of Couchioplanes caeruleus (Horan and Brodsky 1986) comb. nov. and Couchioplanes caeruleus subsp. azureus subsp. nov. Tamura, T., Nakagaito, Y., Nishii, T., Hasegawa, T., Stackebrandt, E., Yokota, A. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Mediated mutagenesis of dimethylnitrosamine in Neurospora crassa by various metabolic activation systems. Whong, W.Z., Ong, T.M. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Pleiotropic effects of cAMP on germination, antibiotic biosynthesis and morphological development in Streptomyces coelicolor. Süsstrunk, U., Pidoux, J., Taubert, S., Ullmann, A., Thompson, C.J. Mol. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Isolation and characterization of a cellulose-growth-specific gene from Agaricus bisporus. Raguz, S., Yagüe, E., Wood, D.A., Thurston, C.F. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Actions of tremorgenic fungal toxins on neurotransmitter release. Norris, P.J., Smith, C.C., De Belleroche, J., Bradford, H.F., Mantle, P.G., Thomas, A.J., Penny, R.H. J. Neurochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Catalases of Aspergillus fumigatus. Paris, S., Wysong, D., Debeaupuis, J.P., Shibuya, K., Philippe, B., Diamond, R.D., Latgé, J.P. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Immunomagnetic purification of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum appressoria. Hutchison, K.A., Perfect, S.E., O'Connell, R.J., Green, J.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Preferential binding of radiolabeled zearalenone to a protein fraction of Fusarium roseum graminearum. Inaba, T., Mirocha, C.J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Development of a specific-locus assay in the ad-3 region of two-component heterokaryons of Neurospora: a review. de Serres, F.J. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Combined purification of actinomycin synthetase I and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 4-methyltransferase from Streptomyces antibioticus. Jones, G.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase of Neurospora crassa. Characteristics, localization, regulation, and genetic control. Hinde, R.W., Jacobson, J.A., Weiss, R.L., Davis, R.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Nitrate reductase from Penicillium chrysogenum. Purification and kinetic mechanism. Renosto, F., Ornitz, D.M., Peterson, D., Segel, I.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Aspergillus nidulans. The first enzyme in penicillin biosynthesis is a multifunctional peptide synthetase. van Liempt, H., von Döhren, H., Kleinkauf, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Genetic and biochemical characterization of EshA, a protein that forms large multimers and affects developmental processes in Streptomyces griseus. Saito, N., Matsubara, K., Watanabe, M., Kato, F., Ochi, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Generation of a non-sporulating strain of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by the manipulation of a developmentally controlled ftsZ promoter. Flärdh, K., Leibovitz, E., Buttner, M.J., Chater, K.F. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. The dnaK operon of Streptomyces coelicolor encodes a novel heat-shock protein which binds to the promoter region of the operon. Bucca, G., Ferina, G., Puglia, A.M., Smith, C.P. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. A Neurospora double-strand-break repair gene, mus-11, encodes a RAD52 homologue and is inducible by mutagens. Sakuraba, Y., Schroeder, A.L., Ishii, C., Inoue, H. Mol. Gen. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Trehalose phosphorylase activity and carbohydrate levels during axenic fruiting in three Agaricus bisporus strains. Wannet, W.J., Aben, E.M., van der Drift, C., Van Griensven, L.J., Vogels, G.D., Op den Camp, H.J. Curr. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Maximal polar growth potential depends on the polarisome component AgSpa2 in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. Knechtle, P., Dietrich, F., Philippsen, P. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparison of Psilocybe cubensis spore and mycelium allergens. Helbling, A., Horner, W.E., Lehrer, S.B. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Cloning and molecular characterization of the acetamidase-encoding gene (amdS) from Aspergillus oryzae. Gomi, K., Kitamoto, K., Kumagai, C. Gene (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Cloning and analysis of a gene cluster from Streptomyces coelicolor that causes accelerated aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces lividans. Ma, H., Kendall, K. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. clk1, a serine/threonine protein kinase-encoding gene, is involved in pathogenicity of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum on common bean. Dufresne, M., Bailey, J.A., Dron, M., Langin, T. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Structure elucidation of sphingolipids from the mycopathogen Sporothrix schenckii: identification of novel glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides with core manalpha1-->6Ins linkage. Toledo, M.S., Levery, S.B., Glushka, J., Straus, A.H., Takahashi, H.K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
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