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Chemical Compound Review

Valerate     pentanoic acid

Synonyms: pentoate, Pentanoate, Valerianate, Valeriansaure, Valeriansaeure, ...
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Disease relevance of valeric acid


Psychiatry related information on valeric acid


High impact information on valeric acid

  • Injections of 17beta-estradiol valerate (0.1 mg/wk) from day 1 or of DBcAMP from day 22 resulted in insignificant changes in growth--28% and 35% increases in tumor volume and a 5% decrease and an 18% increase, respectively, in drained wet weight [7].
  • This hypothesis is tested here in mouse brain by replacing the phenyl valerate substrate of the standard NTE assay with lysolecithin for an "NTE-LysoPLA" assay with four important findings [8].
  • Hormone binding to tumors was decreased by treatment with prolactin (0.5 or 1 mg/day) or estradiol valerate (7.5 mg/kg/week) [9].
  • GPR41 is related to GPR43 (52% similarity; 43% identity) and was activated by similar ligands but with differing specificity for carbon chain length, with pentanoate being the most potent agonist [10].
  • NTE has homologues in Drosophila and yeast and is detected in vitro by assays with a non-physiological ester substrate, phenyl valerate [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of valeric acid


Biological context of valeric acid

  • The active site regions of NEST and calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) share sequence similarity, and the phenyl valerate hydrolase activity of NEST is inhibited by low concentrations of iPLA(2) inhibitors [11].
  • The kinase has a broad substrate specificity and exhibits its highest relative activities with butyrate and valerate [16].
  • Two currently used steroids (clobetasone butyrate and betamethasone valerate) reproducibly cause vasoconstriction on topical application to human forearm skin [17].
  • The effects of E2 on levels of plasma cP-selectin were evaluated during the menstrual cycle in healthy women (n = 18) and by measuring the effect of a single im injection of 10 mg E2 valerate (n = 9) or placebo (n = 10) on cP-selectin levels in healthy male volunteers [18].
  • Four hundred and twenty early postmenopausal women (<5 yr since menopause; mean age, 52 yr) were enrolled in a 3-month, double blind, placebo-controlled study of four doses of intranasal E2 (100, 200, 300, and 400 microg/day), two doses of oral E2 valerate (1 or 2 mg/day), and placebo [19].

Anatomical context of valeric acid


Associations of valeric acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of valeric acid


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of valeric acid


  1. Double-blind, right/left comparison of calcipotriol and betamethasone valerate in treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Kragballe, K., Gjertsen, B.T., De Hoop, D., Karlsmark, T., van de Kerkhof, P.C., Larkö, O., Nieboer, C., Roed-Petersen, J., Strand, A., Tikjøb, G. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Serum levels of short-chain fatty acids in cirrhosis and hepatic coma. Clausen, M.R., Mortensen, P.B., Bendtsen, F. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of estrogen on cartilage and experimentally induced osteoarthritis. Rosner, I.A., Goldberg, V.M., Getzy, L., Moskowitz, R.W. Arthritis Rheum. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Estrogen-withdrawal migraine. I. Duration of exposure required and attempted prophylaxis by premenstrual estrogen administration. Somerville, B.W. Neurology (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Prophylaxis of radiation dermatitis with a topical cortisone cream. Potera, M.E., Lookingbill, D.P., Stryker, J.A. Radiology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of estradiol valerate on voluntary alcohol consumption, beta-endorphin content and neuronal population in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Ju??rez, J., Camargo, G., G??mez-Pinedo, U. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhancement of R3230AC rat mammary tumor growth and cellular differentiation by dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Klein, D.M., Loizzi, R.F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Evidence that mouse brain neuropathy target esterase is a lysophospholipase. Quistad, G.B., Barlow, C., Winrow, C.J., Sparks, S.E., Casida, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Prolactin binding to R3230AC mammary carcinoma and liver in hormone-treated and diabetic rats. Smith, R.D., Hilf, R., Senior, A.E. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids. Brown, A.J., Goldsworthy, S.M., Barnes, A.A., Eilert, M.M., Tcheang, L., Daniels, D., Muir, A.I., Wigglesworth, M.J., Kinghorn, I., Fraser, N.J., Pike, N.B., Strum, J.C., Steplewski, K.M., Murdock, P.R., Holder, J.C., Marshall, F.H., Szekeres, P.G., Wilson, S., Ignar, D.M., Foord, S.M., Wise, A., Dowell, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Human neuropathy target esterase catalyzes hydrolysis of membrane lipids. van Tienhoven, M., Atkins, J., Li, Y., Glynn, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Phenyl valerate esterases other than neuropathy target esterase and the promotion of organophosphate polyneuropathy. Milatovic, D., Moretto, A., Osman, K.A., Lotti, M. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. The response of psoriasis to betamethasone valerate and clobetasol propionate. A 6-month controlled study. Corbett, M.F. Br. J. Dermatol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Diflucortolone valerate (Nerisona): a comparative vasoconstriction test in artificially induced hyperemia of the skin. Reckers, R., Wendt, H. Clinical therapeutics. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Double-blind comparison of halcinonide and betamethasone valerate. Use with occlusive dressings in psoriasis treatment. Clark, R.F., Clement, E.R. Archives of dermatology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Butyrate kinase from Clostridium acetobutylicum. Hartmanis, M.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Steroid-induced vasoconstriction: glucocorticoid antagonist studies. Marks, R., Barlow, J.W., Funder, J.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of estradiol on circulating P-selectin. Jilma, B., Hildebrandt, J., Kapiotis, S., Wagner, O.F., Kitzweger, E., Müllner, C., Monitzer, B., Krejcy, K., Eichler, H.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of intranasal 17beta-estradiol on bone turnover and serum insulin-like growth factor I in postmenopausal women. Garnero, P., Tsouderos, Y., Marton, I., Pelissier, C., Varin, C., Delmas, P.D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced thymic atrophy and lymphocyte stem cell alterations by mechanisms independent of the estrogen receptor. Frazier, D.E., Silverstone, A.E., Gasiewicz, T.A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Patients with Turner's syndrome may have an inherent endometrial abnormality affecting receptivity in oocyte donation. Yaron, Y., Ochshorn, Y., Amit, A., Yovel, I., Kogosowki, A., Lessing, J.B. Fertil. Steril. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Endometrial responses in artificial cycles: a prospective study comparing four different oestrogen dosages. Li, T.C., Cooke, I.D., Warren, M.A., Goolamallee, M., Graham, R.A., Aplin, J.D. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Estrogen-induced synaptic remodelling in adult rat brain is accompanied by the reorganization of neuronal membranes. Olmos, G., Aguilera, P., Tranque, P., Naftolin, F., Garcia-Segura, L.M. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. A hypothalamic endorphinic lesion attenuates acquisition of cocaine self-administration in the rat. Roth-Deri, I., Mayan, R., Yadid, G. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect on plasma gonadotropins of cyclic steroid replacement in women with premature ovarian failure. Lutjen, P.J., Findlay, J.K., Trounson, A.O., Leeton, J.F., Chan, L.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Estrogen supplementation attenuates glucocorticoid and catecholamine responses to mental stress in perimenopausal women. Komesaroff, P.A., Esler, M.D., Sudhir, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Differential effects of hormone-replacement therapy on endogenous nitric oxide (nitrite/nitrate) levels in postmenopausal women substituted with 17 beta-estradiol valerate and cyproterone acetate or medroxyprogesterone acetate. Imthurn, B., Rosselli, M., Jaeger, A.W., Keller, P.J., Dubey, R.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of various salts and pH on the stability of the nucleosome in chromatin fragments. Ni, X., Cole, R.D. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. The effects of hormone therapy, estrogen therapy and tibolone on apoptosis and cyclin D1 expression in postmenopausal vaginal epithelium. Sağsöz, N., Yücel, A., Noyan, V., Bozdoğan, O. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Rat NTE-related esterase is a membrane-associated protein, hydrolyzes phenyl valerate, and interacts with diisopropylfluorophosphate through a serine catalytic machinery. Xie, M., Yang, D., Matoney, L., Yan, B. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Synthetic estrogens-mediated activation of JNK intracellular signaling molecule. Prifti, S., Mall, P., Strowitzki, T., Rabe, T. Gynecol. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Regulation of RANTES and IL-8 production in normal human dermal fibroblasts by active vitamin D3 (tacalcitol). Fukuoka, M., Ogino, Y., Sato, H., Ohta, T., Komoriya, K. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Epidermal cytokeratin and immunocyte responses during treatment of psoriasis with calcipotriol and betamethasone valerate. Berth-Jones, J., Fletcher, A., Hutchinson, P.E. Br. J. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. A comparison between effects of estradiol valerate and low dose ethinyl estradiol on haemostasis parameters. Lindberg, U.B., Crona, N., Stigendal, L., Teger-Nilsson, A.C., Silfverstolpe, G. Thromb. Haemost. (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine by aging platelets: studies in a model of suppressed thrombopoiesis in dogs. Aranda, E., Pizarro, M., Pereira, J., Mezzano, D. Thromb. Haemost. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of LGR7 and LGR8 by neonatal porcine uterine tissues and transmission of milk-borne relaxin into the neonatal circulation by suckling. Yan, W., Wiley, A.A., Bathgate, R.A., Frankshun, A.L., Lasano, S., Crean, B.D., Steinetz, B.G., Bagnell, C.A., Bartol, F.F. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
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