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Gene Review

CSNK1A1  -  casein kinase 1, alpha 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CK1, CK1a, CK1alpha, CKI-alpha, CKIa, ...
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High impact information on CSNK1A1

  • In contrast, C kinase inhibition actually potentiates the initial growth response to L1 or N-cadherin [1].
  • These observations suggest that a C-kinase-independent phosphorylation of hsp28 may be an early event in the cellular action of tumor necrosis factor alpha [2].
  • Thr(18) was phosphorylated in vitro by casein kinase (CK1); this process required the prior phosphorylation of Ser(15) [3].
  • Induction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in response to either reagents activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-PK) or the calcium ion phospholipid-dependent kinase (C-kinase) was compared in the LLC-PK1 and T47D cell lines [4].
  • A second protein kinase CK1-mediated step negatively regulates Wnt signalling by disrupting the lymphocyte enhancer factor-1/beta-catenin complex [5].

Biological context of CSNK1A1


Anatomical context of CSNK1A1


Associations of CSNK1A1 with chemical compounds

  • The results show that H-7 differentially affects the PMN functional events of secretion and superoxide release and suggests that an H-7 inhibitable C-kinase is not involved in chemotactic peptide induced activation of PMN and may not regulate stimulus induced PMN degranulation [10].
  • Protein kinase CK1 is a p53-threonine 18 kinase which requires prior phosphorylation of serine 15 [14].
  • We found that in neutrophils, TNF by itself does not induce: (1) an influx of sodium, (2) an alteration in activity or translocation of the calcium and phospholipid dependent protein kinase (C-kinase), or (3) a release of arachidonic acid from preloaded cells [15].
  • The calmodulin and C-kinase antagonists melittin, calmidazolium, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-napthalenesulfonamide (W7), and trifluoperazine (TFP) also inhibit the activity of the human erythrocyte Ca2+-dependent protease, calpain I [16].
  • The stimulating effect of IL-1 beta on iR-ET production was respectively inhibited by protein kinase C (C kinase) inhibitor (H-7), Ca-calmodulin inhibitor (W-7), cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A kinase) inhibitor (H-8) and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistain) in a dose-dependent fashion [17].

Enzymatic interactions of CSNK1A1

  • The present work evaluates the ability of the cAMP-independent Ser/Thr-protein kinase CK1 to phosphorylate SSAT [9].
  • Here, we identify CK1 and CK2 as major kinases that directly bind to and phosphorylate LEF-1 inducing distinct, kinase-specific changes in the LEF-1/DNA complex [5].

Other interactions of CSNK1A1

  • Consistent with these observations, CK1-dependent phosphorylation inhibits, whereas CK2 activates LEF-1/beta-catenin transcriptional activity in reporter gene assays [5].
  • These data highlight an additional and physiologically important target residue for CK1 in p53 and suggest a potential mechanism by which sequential modification of a pivotal N-terminal residue in p53 may occur following stress-activated modification of serine 15 [14].
  • Interestingly, phosphorylation of E-cadherin by CK1 or CK2 prevented the inhibition of beta-catenin binding by src phosphorylation [18].
  • The enzyme termed nowadays protein kinase CK2 was first described in liver extracts (as a mixture with protein kinase CK1), using casein as artificial substrate, by Burnett and Kennedy (1954) [19].
  • CK1 and CK2 were distinguished from each other at the end of the sixties, and during the seventies CK2 was purified to homogeneity in several laboratories and thoroughly characterized as far as its subunit structure (alpha 2 beta 2), site specificity, and in vitro responsiveness to various effectors were concerned [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CSNK1A1

  • Using this cDNA sequence and PCR amplification, YAC genomic clones that contain this human CK1 alpha sequence have been isolated [7].


  1. Extracellular matrix molecules and cell adhesion molecules induce neurites through different mechanisms. Bixby, J.L., Jhabvala, P. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Tumor necrosis factor induces the rapid phosphorylation of the mammalian heat shock protein hsp28. Arrigo, A.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Damage-mediated phosphorylation of human p53 threonine 18 through a cascade mediated by a casein 1-like kinase. Effect on Mdm2 binding. Sakaguchi, K., Saito, S., Higashimoto, Y., Roy, S., Anderson, C.W., Appella, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Pathway of urokinase-type plasminogen activator induction in the T47D and LLC-PK1 cell lines. Jans, D.A., Dierks-Ventling, C., Hemmings, B.A. Exp. Cell Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. A second protein kinase CK1-mediated step negatively regulates Wnt signalling by disrupting the lymphocyte enhancer factor-1/beta-catenin complex. Hämmerlein, A., Weiske, J., Huber, O. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Casein kinase-1 phosphorylates the p75 tumor necrosis factor receptor and negatively regulates tumor necrosis factor signaling for apoptosis. Beyaert, R., Vanhaesebroeck, B., Declercq, W., Van Lint, J., Vandenabele, P., Agostinis, P., Vandenheede, J.R., Fiers, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning and chromosomal localization of the gene coding for human protein kinase CK1. Tapia, C., Featherstone, T., Gómez, C., Taillon-Miller, P., Allende, C.C., Allende, J.E. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Human CKIalpha(L) and CKIalpha(S) are encoded by both 2.4- and 4. 2-kb transcripts, the longer containing multiple RNA-destablising elements. Yong, T.J., Gan, Y.Y., Toh, B.H., Sentry, J.W. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Phosphorylation of recombinant human spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase by CK1 and modulation of its binding to mitochondria: a comparison with CK2. Bordin, L., Vargiu, C., Clari, G., Brunati, A.M., Colombatto, S., Salvi, M., Grillo, M.A., Toninello, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. The effect of a protein kinase C inhibitor, H-7, on human neutrophil oxidative burst and degranulation. Berkow, R.L., Dodson, R.W., Kraft, A.S. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Sequence analysis of the cDNA for the human casein kinase I delta (CSNK1D) gene and its chromosomal localization. Kusuda, J., Hidari, N., Hirai, M., Hashimoto, K. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Protein kinase activation and the immunosuppressant cyclosporine. Fidelus, R.K., Laughter, A.H. Transplantation (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation-specific, C-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of cytosolic 44 and 32 kDa proteins in HL-60 cells. Tanaka, Y., Tsuyuki, M., Itaya-Hironaka, A., Inada, Y., Yoshihara, K., Kamiya, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Protein kinase CK1 is a p53-threonine 18 kinase which requires prior phosphorylation of serine 15. Dumaz, N., Milne, D.M., Meek, D.W. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Biochemical mechanisms involved in the priming of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor. Berkow, R.L., Dodson, M.R. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Calmodulin and protein kinase C antagonists also inhibit the Ca2+-dependent protein protease, calpain I. Brumley, L.M., Wallace, R.W. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Intracellular signal transduction for interleukin-1 beta-induced endothelin production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Katabami, T., Shimizu, M., Okano, K., Yano, Y., Nemoto, K., Ogura, M., Tsukamoto, T., Suzuki, S., Ohira, K., Yamada, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. In situ phosphorylation of immobilized receptors on biosensor surfaces: Application to E-cadherin/beta-catenin interactions. Catimel, B., Layton, M., Church, N., Ross, J., Condron, M., Faux, M., Simpson, R.J., Burgess, A.W., Nice, E.C. Anal. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. A historical view of protein kinase CK2. Pinna, L.A. Cell. Mol. Biol. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
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