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Disease relevance of Periodontitis

  • Inhibition of OPG-L may thus have therapeutic value to prevent alveolar bone and/or tooth loss in human periodontitis [1].
  • The oral anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen of advanced adult periodontitis, produces a novel class of cysteine proteinases in both cell-associated and secretory forms [2].
  • These findings suggest that generation of bradykinin in inflammatory lesions of rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis may contribute to the bone resorptive process seen in the joints and alveolar bone; however, bradykinin does not directly activate chondrocytes into a catabolic state [3].
  • This failure to ameliorate the complications of periodontitis in patients with primary SS was associated with high levels of BAFF in their saliva compared with the levels in xerostomia controls (7.4 +/- 2.1 versus 1.0 +/- 0.4 ng/ml [P < 0.002]) [4].
  • Culture supernatants from Treponema maltophilum associated with periodontitis in humans and Treponema brennaborense found in a bovine cattle disease accompanied with cachexia caused a dose-dependent TNF-alpha synthesis in human monocytes increasing with culture time [5].

Psychiatry related information on Periodontitis


High impact information on Periodontitis

  • Most PLS patients display both periodontitis and hyperkeratosis [9].
  • These results indicate that RGP-1 is the major VPE factor of P. gingivalis, inducing this activity through PK activation and subsequent BK release, resulting in GCF production at sites of periodontitis caused by infection with this organism [10].
  • Furthermore, mice protected in the lesion and periodontitis models had a predominant P. gingivalis-specific IL-4 response, whereas mice with disease had a predominant IFN-gamma response [11].
  • To study an involvement of the periodontitis pathogen and neuropeptides in pulp inflammation, we investigated human dental pulp cell neuropeptide release by arginine-specific cysteine protease (RgpB), a cysteine proteinase of P. gingivalis, and participating signaling pathways [12].
  • Thus, elevated VEGF secretion in HGFs under the HG condition may play a role in the development of the severe periodontitis observed in diabetic patients [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Periodontitis


Biological context of Periodontitis


Anatomical context of Periodontitis


Gene context of Periodontitis


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Periodontitis


  1. Functional human T-cell immunity and osteoprotegerin ligand control alveolar bone destruction in periodontal infection. Teng, Y.T., Nguyen, H., Gao, X., Kong, Y.Y., Gorczynski, R.M., Singh, B., Ellen, R.P., Penninger, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Involvement of a lysine-specific cysteine proteinase in hemoglobin adsorption and heme accumulation by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Okamoto, K., Nakayama, K., Kadowaki, T., Abe, N., Ratnayake, D.B., Yamamoto, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Bradykinin, a new potential mediator of inflammation-induced bone resorption. Studies of the effects on mouse calvarial bones and articular cartilage in vitro. Lerner, U.H., Jones, I.L., Gustafson, G.T. Arthritis Rheum. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Is periodontal disease mediated by salivary BAFF in Sjögren's syndrome? Pers, J.O., d'Arbonneau, F., Devauchelle-Pensec, V., Saraux, A., Pennec, Y.L., Youinou, P. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Involvement of lipopolysaccharide binding protein, CD14, and Toll-like receptors in the initiation of innate immune responses by Treponema glycolipids. Schröder, N.W., Opitz, B., Lamping, N., Michelsen, K.S., Zähringer, U., Göbel, U.B., Schumann, R.R. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Metronidazole in periodontitis (IV). The effect of patient compliance on treatment parameters. Loesche, W.J., Grossman, N., Giordano, J. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Increased physical activity decreases periodontitis risk in men. Merchant, A.T., Pitiphat, W., Rimm, E.B., Joshipura, K. Eur. J. Epidemiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Pain after periodontal scaling and root planing. Pihlstrom, B.L., Hargreaves, K.M., Bouwsma, O.J., Myers, W.R., Goodale, M.B., Doyle, M.J. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Loss-of-function mutations in the cathepsin C gene result in periodontal disease and palmoplantar keratosis. Toomes, C., James, J., Wood, A.J., Wu, C.L., McCormick, D., Lench, N., Hewitt, C., Moynihan, L., Roberts, E., Woods, C.G., Markham, A., Wong, M., Widmer, R., Ghaffar, K.A., Pemberton, M., Hussein, I.R., Temtamy, S.A., Davies, R., Read, A.P., Sloan, P., Dixon, M.J., Thakker, N.S. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Pathogenesis of periodontitis: a major arginine-specific cysteine proteinase from Porphyromonas gingivalis induces vascular permeability enhancement through activation of the kallikrein/kinin pathway. Imamura, T., Pike, R.N., Potempa, J., Travis, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. An immune response directed to proteinase and adhesin functional epitopes protects against Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontal bone loss. O'Brien-Simpson, N.M., Pathirana, R.D., Paolini, R.A., Chen, Y.Y., Veith, P.D., Tam, V., Ally, N., Pike, R.N., Reynolds, E.C. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Neuropeptide release from dental pulp cells by RgpB via proteinase-activated receptor-2 signaling. Tancharoen, S., Sarker, K.P., Imamura, T., Biswas, K.K., Matsushita, K., Tatsuyama, S., Travis, J., Potempa, J., Torii, M., Maruyama, I. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. High glucose enhances interleukin-6-induced vascular endothelial growth factor 165 expression via activation of gp130-mediated p44/42 MAPK-CCAAT/enhancer binding protein signaling in gingival fibroblasts. Omori, K., Naruishi, K., Nishimura, F., Yamada-Naruishi, H., Takashiba, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of C3 and IgG proteolysis enhances phagocytosis of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Cutler, C.W., Arnold, R.R., Schenkein, H.A. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Activation of blood coagulation factor X by arginine-specific cysteine proteinases (gingipain-Rs) from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Imamura, T., Potempa, J., Tanase, S., Travis, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Periodontitis in estrogen-deficient women. Daniell, H.W. Arch. Intern. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. In vitro susceptibilities of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to a number of antimicrobial combinations. Pavicić, M.J., van Winkelhoff, A.J., de Graaff, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Inhibition of trypsin-like cysteine proteinases (gingipains) from Porphyromonas gingivalis by tetracycline and its analogues. Imamura, T., Matsushita, K., Travis, J., Potempa, J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Accumulation of human heat shock protein 60-reactive T cells in the gingival tissues of periodontitis patients. Yamazaki, K., Ohsawa, Y., Tabeta, K., Ito, H., Ueki, K., Oda, T., Yoshie, H., Seymour, G.J. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Immunoglobulin allotypes and immunoglobulin G subclass responses to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in early-onset periodontitis. Choi, J.I., Ha, M.H., Kim, J.H., Kim, S.J. Infect. Immun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Defective neutrophil chemotaxis in juvenile periodontitis. Clark, R.A., Page, R.C., Wilde, G. Infect. Immun. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Defective neutrophil and monocyte motility in patients with early onset periodontitis. Page, R.C., Sims, T.J., Geissler, F., Altman, L.C., Baab, D.A. Infect. Immun. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) expression is induced in oral mucosal epithelium during chronic inflammation. Uitto, V.J., Airola, K., Vaalamo, M., Johansson, N., Putnins, E.E., Firth, J.D., Salonen, J., López-Otín, C., Saarialho-Kere, U., Kähäri, V.M. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Proinflammatory cytokines induce proteinase 3 as membrane-bound and secretory forms in human oral epithelial cells and antibodies to proteinase 3 activate the cells through protease-activated receptor-2. Uehara, A., Sugawara, Y., Sasano, T., Takada, H., Sugawara, S. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Activation of neutrophil collagenase in periodontitis. Romanelli, R., Mancini, S., Laschinger, C., Overall, C.M., Sodek, J., McCulloch, C.A. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Circulating promyelocytes and low levels of CD16 expression on polymorphonuclear leukocytes accompany early-onset periodontitis. Nemoto, E., Nakamura, M., Shoji, S., Horiuchi, H. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Porphyromonas gingivalis gingipain-R enhances interleukin-8 but decreases gamma interferon-inducible protein 10 production by human gingival fibroblasts in response to T-cell contact. Oido-Mori, M., Rezzonico, R., Wang, P.L., Kowashi, Y., Dayer, J.M., Baehni, P.C., Chizzolini, C. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 gene family, oral microbial pathogens, and smoking in adult periodontitis. Laine, M.L., Farré, M.A., González, G., van Dijk, L.J., Ham, A.J., Winkel, E.G., Crusius, J.B., Vandenbroucke, J.P., van Winkelhoff, A.J., Peña, A.S. J. Dent. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Profile of cytokine mRNA expression in chronic adult periodontitis. Roberts, F.A., McCaffery, K.A., Michalek, S.M. J. Dent. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Regulatory T-cells infiltrate periodontal disease tissues. Nakajima, T., Ueki-Maruyama, K., Oda, T., Ohsawa, Y., Ito, H., Seymour, G.J., Yamazaki, K. J. Dent. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. CD14 and TLR4 gene polymorphisms in adult periodontitis. Laine, M.L., Morré, S.A., Murillo, L.S., van Winkelhoff, A.J., Peña, A.S. J. Dent. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Gingival tissue and crevicular fluid co-operation in adult periodontitis. Beklen, A., Tüter, G., Sorsa, T., Hanemaaijer, R., Virtanen, I., Tervahartiala, T., Konttinen, Y.T. J. Dent. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with periodontitis. Booth, V., Ashley, F.P., Lehner, T. Infect. Immun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Increased levels of soluble CD14 in sera of periodontitis patients. Hayashi, J., Masaka, T., Ishikawa, I. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclass responses to the RgpA-Kgp proteinase-adhesin complex of Porphyromonas gingivalis in adult periodontitis. O'Brien-Simpson, N.M., Black, C.L., Bhogal, P.S., Cleal, S.M., Slakeski, N., Higgins, T.J., Reynolds, E.C. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Hemin-induced modifications of the antigenicity and hemin-binding capacity of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. Cutler, C.W., Eke, P.I., Genco, C.A., Van Dyke, T.E., Arnold, R.R. Infect. Immun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Distribution and molecular characterization of Porphyromonas gingivalis carrying a new type of fimA gene. Nakagawa, I., Amano, A., Kimura, R.K., Nakamura, T., Kawabata, S., Hamada, S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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