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Gene Review

env  -  envelope polyprotein

Feline immunodeficiency virus

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Disease relevance of env

  • However, the extent of sequence divergence of each retroviral gene segment is large (e.g., percentage sequence similarity between FIV and PLV-14 env is 8% amino acid and 37% nucleotide similarity), indicating relatively ancient divergence of these feline lentiviral genomes [1].
  • The 9747-bp provirus of this virus, FIV-Oma, has typical lentivirus organization with LTRs, gag, pol, and env open reading frames (ORFs), putative vif and rev ORFs, and an ORF similar to ORF2/ORFA of domestic cat FIV isolates [2].
  • The rate of change of FIV was estimated to be 3.4 x 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year for the env gene and less than 10(-4) nucleotide substitutions per site per year for the gag and pol genes, values concordant with that found for human immunodeficiency virus 1 [3].
  • Besides the three large open reading frames (ORFs) comprising the gag, pol, and env genes common to all replication-competent retroviruses, five additional small ORFs were found [4].
  • A feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based lentiviral vector was pseudotyped to identify envelope (env) glycoproteins that direct efficient gene transfer to pulmonary epithelia for the treatment or prevention of lung diseases [5].

High impact information on env

  • Although long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed FIV expression was found to be negligible in human cells, promoter substitution enabled an env-deleted, three-plasmid, human cell-FIV lentiviral vector system to express high levels of FIV proteins and FIV vectors in human cells, thus bypassing the hazards of feline vector producer cells [6].
  • CONCLUSION: Genetic vaccination using a MIDGE-based construct for the expression of the surface-transmembrane protein domain of FIV env and feline IL-12 DNA led to protection against homologous virus challenge in three out of four vaccinated cats [7].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a genetic vaccination protocol based on minimalistic, immunogenic defined gene expression (MIDGE) vectors coding for domains of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) env gene and feline IL-12 [7].
  • We utilized high titer FIV vector (>10(8) TU/ml) pseudotyped with the JSRV env glycoprotein (JSRVFIV) to study the transduction of polarized primary cultures of human airway epithelia and receptor/vector interactions [5].
  • Based on phylogenetic analysis of fragments of envelope (env) and polymerase (pol) genes, two genetically distinct lineages of FIVpco were found to cooccur in the population but not in the same individuals [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of env

  • Autologous or allogeneic skin fibroblasts either infected with recombinant FIV gag- or env-vaccinia virus or pulsed with FIV env peptides were used as targets in chromium-51 release assays [9].

Biological context of env


Anatomical context of env


Associations of env with chemical compounds

  • Changes were detected within an N-terminal region of the envelope glycoprotein gp 120 (env) [3].
  • We also monitored the effects of these viruses on an important astrocyte function, glutamate uptake; all viruses significantly decreased this activity, but only the viruses containing the env of PPR significantly impaired glutamate uptake without altering the culture viability [16].
  • Some 31 of the 33 cysteine residues and 17 of the 21 potential N-linked glycosylation sites of the FIV34TF10 env gene product were conserved among all five isolates [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of env


  1. Nucleotide sequence analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV-14): genomic organization and relationship to other lentiviruses. Langley, R.J., Hirsch, V.M., O'Brien, S.J., Adger-Johnson, D., Goeken, R.M., Olmsted, R.A. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Proviral organization and sequence analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus isolated from a Pallas' cat. Barr, M.C., Zou, L., Long, F., Hoose, W.A., Avery, R.J. Virology (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Extensive sequence variation of feline immunodeficiency virus env genes in isolates from naturally infected cats. Greene, W.K., Meers, J., del Fierro, G., Carnegie, P.R., Robinson, W.F. Arch. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Animal immunodeficiency viruses. Egberink, H., Horzinek, M.C. Vet. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Gene transfer to respiratory epithelia with lentivirus pseudotyped with Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope glycoprotein. Sinn, P.L., Penisten, A.K., Burnight, E.R., Hickey, M.A., Williams, G., McCoy, D.M., Mallampalli, R.K., McCray, P.B. Hum. Gene Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Efficient transduction of nondividing human cells by feline immunodeficiency virus lentiviral vectors. Poeschla, E.M., Wong-Staal, F., Looney, D.J. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Protection against FIV challenge infection by genetic vaccination using minimalistic DNA constructs for FIV env gene and feline IL-12 expression. Boretti, F.S., Leutenegger, C.M., Mislin, C., Hofmann-Lehmann, R., König, S., Schroff, M., Junghans, C., Fehr, D., Huettner, S.W., Habel, A., Flynn, J.N., Aubert, A., Pedersen, N.C., Wittig, B., Lutz, H. AIDS (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Epidemiology, genetic diversity, and evolution of endemic feline immunodeficiency virus in a population of wild cougars. Biek, R., Rodrigo, A.G., Holley, D., Drummond, A., Anderson, C.R., Ross, H.A., Poss, M. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Involvement of gag- and env-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in protective immunity to feline immunodeficiency virus. Flynn, J.N., Beatty, J.A., Cannon, C.A., Stephens, E.B., Hosie, M.J., Neil, J.C., Jarrett, O. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular characterization and heterogeneity of feline immunodeficiency virus isolates. Maki, N., Miyazawa, T., Fukasawa, M., Hasegawa, A., Hayami, M., Miki, K., Mikami, T. Arch. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Genetic diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus: dual infection, recombination, and distinct evolutionary rates among envelope sequence clades. Bachmann, M.H., Mathiason-Dubard, C., Learn, G.H., Rodrigo, A.G., Sodora, D.L., Mazzetti, P., Hoover, E.A., Mullins, J.I. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Nucleotide sequence of feline immunodeficiency virus: classification of Japanese isolates into two subtypes which are distinct from non-Japanese subtypes. Kakinuma, S., Motokawa, K., Hohdatsu, T., Yamamoto, J.K., Koyama, H., Hashimoto, H. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Upregulation of surface feline CXCR4 expression following ectopic expression of CCR5: implications for studies of the cell tropism of feline immunodeficiency virus. Willett, B.J., Cannon, C.A., Hosie, M.J. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Induction of feline immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxic T cells in vivo with carrier-free synthetic peptide. Flynn, J.N., Cannon, C.A., Beatty, J.A., Mackett, M., Rigby, M.A., Neil, J.C., Jarrett, C. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecularly cloned feline immunodeficiency virus NCSU1 JSY3 induces immunodeficiency in specific-pathogen-free cats. Yang, J.S., English, R.V., Ritchey, J.W., Davidson, M.G., Wasmoen, T., Levy, J.K., Gebhard, D.H., Tompkins, M.B., Tompkins, W.A. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Replication rate of feline immunodeficiency virus in astrocytes is envelope dependent: implications for glutamate uptake. Billaud, J.N., Selway, D., Yu, N., Phillips, T.R. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of conserved and variable regions in the envelope glycoprotein sequences of two feline immunodeficiency viruses isolated in Zurich, Switzerland. Morikawa, S., Lutz, H., Aubert, A., Bishop, D.H. Virus Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Enhancement of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection after DNA vaccination with the FIV envelope. Richardson, J., Moraillon, A., Baud, S., Cuisinier, A.M., Sonigo, P., Pancino, G. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of feline immunodeficiency virus gag and env precursor proteins in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and their use in immunodiagnosis. Verschoor, E.J., van Vliet, A.L., Egberink, H.F., Hesselink, W., Horzinek, M.C., de Ronde, A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Evaluation of subunit vaccines against feline immunodeficiency virus infection. Verschoor, E.J., Willemse, M.J., Stam, J.G., van Vliet, A.L., Pouwels, H., Chalmers, S.K., Horzinek, M.C., Sondermeijer, P.J., Hesselink, W., de Ronde, A. Vaccine (1996) [Pubmed]
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