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MeSH Review

Genes, pol

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Disease relevance of Genes, pol


High impact information on Genes, pol

  • Although structurally and biologically very diverse, such elements carry conserved polymerase genes (pol) that encode proteins required for reverse transcription [6].
  • Previous studies have shown that the pathogenic and host range specificity of a prototype molecular clone of FeLV-C [FeLV-Sarma-C (FSC)] colocalize to a region encoding the 3' 73 amino acids of the pol gene product and the N-terminal 241 amino acids of the envelope surface glycoprotein named SU [7].
  • We first characterized the HIV-1 pol gene to detect the zidovudine-resistance mutations at codons 215 and 219 [8].
  • The seroprevalence rate of antibodies to the pol gene products p64 and p53 and to the endonuclease p34 were evaluated [9].
  • Mutations at the POLTERGEIST (POL) gene were previously described as phenotypic suppressors of mutations within the CLV1 gene [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genes, pol


Biological context of Genes, pol

  • Plus-strand DNA synthesis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1-H3 retrotransposon is initiated at two sites, PPT1 and PPT2, located at the upstream boundary of the 3'-long terminal repeat and near the middle of the pol gene in the integrase coding region [13].
  • The vaccine consisted of two plasmids, one expressing the gag/pol genes and the other expressing the env gene of FeLV-A/Glasgow-1 [14].
  • When two SSV clones were compared with the helper, they contained the following three characteristic deletions: (i) a 250-base pair deletion in the gag gene about 1.0 kb from the 5' end of the genome; (ii) a 1.85-kb deletion in the pol gene; and (iii) a 1.9-kb deletion at the 3' end, which included part of the env gene [15].
  • To identify the region of the viral nucleic acid responsible for synthesis of the pol gene products, a 300-base-pair DNA fragment containing the stop codon from a type C murine virus (AK virus) was inserted into the Escherichia coli lacZ gene such that the translational reading frame was maintained [16].
  • This case illustrates the development of multidrug resistance during prolonged exposure to antiviral therapy for CMV and cross-resistance arising from point mutations in the CMV Pol gene [17].

Anatomical context of Genes, pol


Associations of Genes, pol with chemical compounds


Gene context of Genes, pol

  • Plus-strand DNA synthesis of the yeast retrotransposon Ty1 is initiated at two sites, PPT1 next to the 3' LTR and PPT2 within the pol gene. PPT1 is sufficient for Ty1 transposition [25].
  • This sequence comprises the amino-terminal part of the env gene, the putative signal peptide, which overlaps in part with the carboxy terminus of the pol gene [26].
  • HIV-1 pol gene sequencing is now used routinely in France to identify mutations associated with resistance to reverse transcriptase (RT) or protease (PR) inhibitors [27].
  • In vitro, UL42 has been shown to form a heterodimeric complex with the 140-kDa protein product of the viral DNA polymerase (pol) gene [28].
  • Trimming portions of the viral pol gene resulted in dramatic increases in yield over earlier constructs; the accumulation of high levels of enzymatically active protein in this system was increased by the retention of the trpE sequences at the amino terminus [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Genes, pol


  1. Nucleotide sequence of SRV-1, a type D simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome retrovirus. Power, M.D., Marx, P.A., Bryant, M.L., Gardner, M.B., Barr, P.J., Luciw, P.A. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. HIV-1 drug resistance in newly infected individuals. Boden, D., Hurley, A., Zhang, L., Cao, Y., Guo, Y., Jones, E., Tsay, J., Ip, J., Farthing, C., Limoli, K., Parkin, N., Markowitz, M. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Computer analysis of retroviral pol genes: assignment of enzymatic functions to specific sequences and homologies with nonviral enzymes. Johnson, M.S., McClure, M.A., Feng, D.F., Gray, J., Doolittle, R.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. The alpha and beta chains of avian retrovirus reverse transcriptase independently expressed in Escherichia coli: characterization of enzymatic activities. Soltis, D.A., Skalka, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Retrotransposable L1 elements expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue: association with genomic DNA hypomethylation and influence on gene expression. Neidhart, M., Rethage, J., Kuchen, S., Künzler, P., Crowl, R.M., Billingham, M.E., Gay, R.E., Gay, S. Arthritis Rheum. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Biosynthesis of the reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B viruses involves de novo translational initiation not ribosomal frameshifting. Chang, L.J., Pryciak, P., Ganem, D., Varmus, H.E. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C phenotype evolves through distinct alterations near the N terminus of the envelope surface glycoprotein. Brojatsch, J., Kristal, B.S., Viglianti, G.A., Khiroya, R., Hoover, E.A., Mullins, J.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Random important alterations in HIV-1 viral quasispecies after antiviral treatment. Sánchez-Palomino, S., Olivares, I., Yuste, E., Richman, D.D., López-Galíndez, C. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunogenic nature of a Pol gene product of HTLV-III/LAV. Allan, J.S., Coligan, J.E., Lee, T.H., Barin, F., Kanki, P.J., M'Boup, S., McLane, M.F., Groopman, J.E., Essex, M. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. POLTERGEIST encodes a protein phosphatase 2C that regulates CLAVATA pathways controlling stem cell identity at Arabidopsis shoot and flower meristems. Yu, L.P., Miller, A.K., Clark, S.E. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Drug resistance patterns of recombinant herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase mutants generated with a set of overlapping cosmids and plasmids. Bestman-Smith, J., Boivin, G. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Quantification of HIV DNA in the brain by PCR: differences between fresh frozen and formalin fixed tissue. Davison, F., An, S.F., Scaravilli, F. J. Clin. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. A sequence immediately upstream of the plus-strand primer is essential for plus-strand DNA synthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1 retrotransposon. Wilhelm, M., Heyman, T., Boutabout, M., Wilhelm, F.X. Nucleic Acids Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Feline leukemia virus DNA vaccine efficacy is enhanced by coadministration with interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 expression vectors. Hanlon, L., Argyle, D., Bain, D., Nicolson, L., Dunham, S., Golder, M.C., McDonald, M., McGillivray, C., Jarrett, O., Neil, J.C., Onions, D.E. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Deletions of specific regions of the simian sarcoma-associated virus genome are found in defective viruses and in the simian sarcoma virus. Gelmann, E.P., Petri, E., Cetta, A., Wong-Staal, F. J. Virol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Retroviral gag gene amber codon suppression is caused by an intrinsic cis-acting component of the viral mRNA. Panganiban, A.T. J. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Evolution of mutations conferring multidrug resistance during prophylaxis and therapy for cytomegalovirus disease. Chou, S., Marousek, G., Guentzel, S., Follansbee, S.E., Poscher, M.E., Lalezari, J.P., Miner, R.C., Drew, W.L. J. Infect. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation and characterization of herpes simplex virus mutants containing engineered mutations at the DNA polymerase locus. Marcy, A.I., Yager, D.R., Coen, D.M. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of novel porcine endogenous betaretrovirus sequences in miniature swine. Ericsson, T., Oldmixon, B., Blomberg, J., Rosa, M., Patience, C., Andersson, G. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O isolates to antiretroviral agents: in vitro phenotypic and genotypic analyses. Descamps, D., Collin, G., Letourneur, F., Apetrei, C., Damond, F., Loussert-Ajaka, I., Simon, F., Saragosti, S., Brun-Vézinet, F. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. A new avian leukosis virus-based packaging cell line that uses two separate transcomplementing helper genomes. Cosset, F.L., Legras, C., Chebloune, Y., Savatier, P., Thoraval, P., Thomas, J.L., Samarut, J., Nigon, V.M., Verdier, G. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of the DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase genesof herpes simplex virus isolates from AIDS patients in whom acyclovirand foscarnet therapy sequentially failed. Schmit, I., Boivin, G. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. A deletion mutation in region V of the cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase sequence confers multidrug resistance. Chou, S., Miner, R.C., Drew, W.L. J. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Physical mapping of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) (Towne) DNA polymerase gene: DNA-mediated transfer of a genetic marker for an HCMV gene. D'Aquila, R.T., Hayward, G.S., Summers, W.C. Virology (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Plus-strand DNA synthesis of the yeast retrotransposon Ty1 is initiated at two sites, PPT1 next to the 3' LTR and PPT2 within the pol gene. PPT1 is sufficient for Ty1 transposition. Heyman, T., Agoutin, B., Friant, S., Wilhelm, F.X., Wilhelm, M.L. J. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Identification of a Rev-related protein by analysis of spliced transcripts of the human endogenous retroviruses HTDV/HERV-K. Löwer, R., Tönjes, R.R., Korbmacher, C., Kurth, R., Löwer, J. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. HIV-1 subtyping using phylogenetic analysis of pol gene sequences. Pasquier, C., Millot, N., Njouom, R., Sandres, K., Cazabat, M., Puel, J., Izopet, J. J. Virol. Methods (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. The essential in vivo function of the herpes simplex virus UL42 protein correlates with its ability to stimulate the viral DNA polymerase in vitro. Reddig, P.J., Grinstead, L.A., Monahan, S.J., Johnson, P.A., Parris, D.S. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Structural requirements for bacterial expression of stable, enzymatically active fusion proteins containing the human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase. Tanese, N., Prasad, V.R., Goff, S.P. DNA (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Novel mutations in the thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase genes of acyclovir and foscarnet resistant herpes simplex viruses infecting an immunocompromised patient. Chibo, D., Mijch, A., Doherty, R., Birch, C. J. Clin. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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