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Gene Review

Foxg1  -  forkhead box G1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2900064B05Rik, BF-1, BF1, Bf1, Brain factor 1, ...
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Disease relevance of Foxg1


High impact information on Foxg1

  • These results suggest that BF-1 controls the morphogenesis of the telencephalon by regulating the rate of neuroepithelial cell proliferation and the timing of neuronal differentiation [5].
  • Telencephalic neuroepithelial cells are specified in the BF-1 mutant, but their proliferation is reduced [5].
  • These results suggest that BF-1 plays an important role in the establishment of the regional subdivision of the developing brain and in the development of the telencephalon [6].
  • Animals carrying a floxed Rb allele were interbred with mice in which cre was knocked into the Foxg1 locus [7].
  • Moreover, coexpression of Grg6 and BF-1 in cortical progenitor cells leads to a decrease in the number of proliferating cells and increased neuronal differentiation [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Foxg1


Biological context of Foxg1

  • As much of the increased ipsilateral projection in Foxg1-/- embryos arises from temporal RGCs that are unlikely to have an autonomous requirement for Foxg1, we propose that the phenotype reflects at least in part a requirement for Foxg1 outwith the RGCs themselves, most likely at the optic chiasm [11].
  • Analysis of Foxg1 expression using lacZ reporter transgenes shows that Foxg1 is normally expressed in most, if not all, nasal RGCs but not in most temporal RGCs, neither at the time they project nor earlier in their lineage [11].
  • We provide evidence that the hypoplasia results from decreased Foxg1 expression, reduced cell proliferation and increased cell death [12].
  • This technique is used to demonstrate that the cell cycle is prematurely lengthened in the Foxg1-null telencephalon [13].
  • Foxg1 is required for specification of ventral telencephalon and region-specific regulation of dorsal telencephalic precursor proliferation and apoptosis [13].

Anatomical context of Foxg1

  • Foxg1 is also expressed at the optic chiasm [11].
  • The winged helix transcription factor Foxg1 facilitates retinal ganglion cell axon crossing of the ventral midline in the mouse [11].
  • Molecular analyses indicated that expression of Shh, Nkx2.1 and BF-1 was increased and their expression domains expanded dorsally in the ventral telencephalon in embryos of diabetic mice at embryonic day 11 [14].
  • Foxg1 is required for morphogenesis and histogenesis of the mammalian inner ear [15].
  • Foxg1, encoding for one of these factors, previously was reported to be necessary for basal ganglia morphogenesis, proper tuning of cortical neuronal differentiation rates, and the switching of cortical neuroblasts from early generation of primordial plexiform layer to late production of cortical plate [16].

Associations of Foxg1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Foxg1

  • We show that BF-2 is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein with a binding specificity distinct from BF-1 [18].

Regulatory relationships of Foxg1

  • We observed occasional cells with diencephalic character in the Foxg1 (forkhead box)-expressing Gli3(Xt/Xt) telencephalon at embryonic day 10.5, a day after the anatomical subdivision of the forebrain vesicle [19].
  • We found that ectopic expression of BF-1 in vitro inhibits TGF-beta mediated growth inhibition and transcriptional activation [20].
  • Therefore, we investigated whether BF-1 can inhibit Smad-dependent transcriptional responses by interacting with Smads or Smad binding partners [20].

Other interactions of Foxg1

  • Disruption of early events in thalamocortical tract formation in mice lacking the transcription factors Pax6 or Foxg1 [21].
  • Bmp co-expression overlaps that of Msx1 and Hfh4, and is complementary to that of Bf1 [22].
  • Several Fox genes (Foxi1, Foxg1) are expressed in the developing otocyst of both zebrafish and mammals [15].
  • We also investigated the proper patterning of structures adjacent to the prechordal plate by performing in situ hybridization of HNF-3beta, Six-3 and BF-1, genes whose expression domains remained unchanged [23].
  • Remarkably, in the absence of Foxg1, additional inactivation of the medial fates promoter Emx2, although not suppressing cortical specification, conversely rescues overproduction of Reelin(on) neurons [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Foxg1


  1. Calorie restriction prevents the occlusive coronary vascular disease of autoimmune (NZW x BXSB)F1 mice. Mizutani, H., Engelman, R.W., Kinjoh, K., Kurata, Y., Ikehara, S., Matsuzawa, Y., Good, R.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Prevention and induction of occlusive coronary vascular disease in autoimmune (W/B)F1 mice by haploidentical bone marrow transplantation: possible role for anticardiolipin autoantibodies. Mizutani, H., Engelman, R.W., Kinjoh, K., Kurata, Y., Ikehara, S., Good, R.A. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Development and characterization of monoclonal antiplatelet autoantibodies from autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura-prone (NZW x BXSB)F1 mice. Mizutani, H., Engelman, R.W., Kurata, Y., Ikehara, S., Good, R.A. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. A pathogenic role of Th2 cells and their cytokine products on the pulmonary metastasis of murine B16 melanoma. Kobayashi, M., Kobayashi, H., Pollard, R.B., Suzuki, F. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Winged helix transcription factor BF-1 is essential for the development of the cerebral hemispheres. Xuan, S., Baptista, C.A., Balas, G., Tao, W., Soares, V.C., Lai, E. Neuron (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Telencephalon-restricted expression of BF-1, a new member of the HNF-3/fork head gene family, in the developing rat brain. Tao, W., Lai, E. Neuron (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Telencephalon-specific Rb knockouts reveal enhanced neurogenesis, survival and abnormal cortical development. Ferguson, K.L., Vanderluit, J.L., Hébert, J.M., McIntosh, W.C., Tibbo, E., MacLaurin, J.G., Park, D.S., Wallace, V.A., Vooijs, M., McConnell, S.K., Slack, R.S. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Antagonistic effects of Grg6 and Groucho/TLE on the transcription repression activity of brain factor 1/FoxG1 and cortical neuron differentiation. Marçal, N., Patel, H., Dong, Z., Belanger-Jasmin, S., Hoffman, B., Helgason, C.D., Dang, J., Stifani, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Autoimmune-prone (NZW x BXSB)F1 (W/BF1) mice escape severe thrombocytopenia after treatment with deoxyspergualin, an immunosuppressant. Nemoto, K., Mae, T., Saiga, K., Matsuura, E., Koike, T. Br. J. Haematol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of a novel pyridylsulphonyl thiazole derivative, FR115092, on autoimmune and mitomycin C-induced thrombocytopenia in mice. Nishigaki, F., Tsujimoto, S., Inami, M., Matsumoto, S., Naoe, Y., Kawamura, I., Manda, T., Shimomura, K. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. The winged helix transcription factor Foxg1 facilitates retinal ganglion cell axon crossing of the ventral midline in the mouse. Pratt, T., Tian, N.M., Simpson, T.I., Mason, J.O., Price, D.J. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Dose-dependent functions of Fgf8 in regulating telencephalic patterning centers. Storm, E.E., Garel, S., Borello, U., Hebert, J.M., Martinez, S., McConnell, S.K., Martin, G.R., Rubenstein, J.L. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Foxg1 is required for specification of ventral telencephalon and region-specific regulation of dorsal telencephalic precursor proliferation and apoptosis. Martynoga, B., Morrison, H., Price, D.J., Mason, J.O. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Altered gene expression with abnormal patterning of the telencephalon in embryos of diabetic Albino Swiss mice. Liao, D.M., Ng, Y.K., Tay, S.S., Ling, E.A., Dheen, S.T. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Foxg1 is required for morphogenesis and histogenesis of the mammalian inner ear. Pauley, S., Lai, E., Fritzsch, B. Dev. Dyn. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Foxg1 confines Cajal-Retzius neuronogenesis and hippocampal morphogenesis to the dorsomedial pallium. Muzio, L., Mallamaci, A. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Transduction of a murine dominant negative activation transcription factor 1 increases cell surface expression of the class I MHC on a human epidermoid tumor cell line. Ishizu, A., Sawai, K., Ikeda, H., Hirano, T., Ishiguro, N., Meruelo, D. Int. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of winged helix genes, BF-1 and BF-2, define adjacent domains within the developing forebrain and retina. Hatini, V., Tao, W., Lai, E. J. Neurobiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Abnormal positioning of diencephalic cell types in neocortical tissue in the dorsal telencephalon of mice lacking functional Gli3. Fotaki, V., Yu, T., Zaki, P.A., Mason, J.O., Price, D.J. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. BF-1 interferes with transforming growth factor beta signaling by associating with Smad partners. Dou, C., Lee, J., Liu, B., Liu, F., Massague, J., Xuan, S., Lai, E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Disruption of early events in thalamocortical tract formation in mice lacking the transcription factors Pax6 or Foxg1. Pratt, T., Quinn, J.C., Simpson, T.I., West, J.D., Mason, J.O., Price, D.J. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as regulators of dorsal forebrain development. Furuta, Y., Piston, D.W., Hogan, B.L. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Goosecoid and cerberus-like do not interact during mouse embryogenesis. Borges, A.C., Marques, S., Belo, J.A. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Gastrointestinal vasculitis in autoimmune-prone (NZW X BXSB)F1 mice: association with anticardiolipin autoantibodies. Mizutani, H., Engelman, R.W., Kinjoh, K., Good, R.A. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of bone marrow transplantation on antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in murine lupus mice. Adachi, Y., Inaba, M., Amoh, Y., Yoshifusa, H., Nakamura, Y., Suzuka, H., Akamatu, S., Nakai, S., Haruna, H., Adachi, M. Immunobiology (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Prevention of coronary vascular disease by transplantation of T-cell-depleted bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cell preparation in autoimmune-prone w/BF(1) mice. Kirzner, R.P., Engelman, R.W., Mizutani, H., Specter, S., Good, R.A. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. (2000) [Pubmed]
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