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Gene Review

ECT2  -  epithelial cell transforming 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ARHGEF31, Epithelial cell-transforming sequence 2 oncogene, Protein ECT2
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Disease relevance of ECT2


High impact information on ECT2


Biological context of ECT2


Anatomical context of ECT2


Associations of ECT2 with chemical compounds

  • Unlike other known guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho GTPases, ECT2 exhibits nuclear localization in interphase, spreads throughout the cytoplasm in prometaphase, and is condensed in the midbody during cytokinesis [4].
  • Importantly, we found that the ECT2 gene is bound by p53 in vivo in response to DNA damage and Nutlin-3 treatment [9].
  • Furthermore, we provided evidence that inhibition of protein methyltransferases, especially arginine methyltransferases, relieve the repression of ECT2 induced by DNA damage or Nutlin-3 in a p53-dependent manner [9].

Physical interactions of ECT2

  • We found that the phospho-mimic mutation T341D increases binding with itself or the N-terminal half of ECT2 [12].

Regulatory relationships of ECT2


Other interactions of ECT2

  • Endogenous ECT2 in mitotic cells strongly associated with Plk1 PBD, and this binding was inhibited by phosphatase treatment [7].
  • Knockdown of ECT2 phenocopies that of MgcRacGAP [5].
  • The small GTPase RhoA and its regulators ECT2 and MgcRacGAP have been implicated in furrow ingression in mammalian cells, but the signaling upstream of these molecules remains unclear [6].
  • We propose that T341 phosphorylation by Cyclin B/Cdk1 could be a trigger for further activation of ECT2 [12].
  • These results suggest that the XRCC1, CLB6, and BRCT domains of ECT2 play a critical role in regulating cytokinesis [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ECT2


  1. Expression level of ECT2 proto-oncogene correlates with prognosis in glioma patients. Sano, M., Genkai, N., Yajima, N., Tsuchiya, N., Homma, J., Tanaka, R., Miki, T., Yamanaka, R. Oncol. Rep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. An ECT2-centralspindlin complex regulates the localization and function of RhoA. Yüce, O., Piekny, A., Glotzer, M. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Ect2 and MgcRacGAP regulate the activation and function of Cdc42 in mitosis. Oceguera-Yanez, F., Kimura, K., Yasuda, S., Higashida, C., Kitamura, T., Hiraoka, Y., Haraguchi, T., Narumiya, S. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Human ECT2 is an exchange factor for Rho GTPases, phosphorylated in G2/M phases, and involved in cytokinesis. Tatsumoto, T., Xie, X., Blumenthal, R., Okamoto, I., Miki, T. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. MgcRacGAP controls the assembly of the contractile ring and the initiation of cytokinesis. Zhao, W.M., Fang, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 induces cytokinesis without chromosome segregation in an ECT2 and MgcRacGAP-dependent manner. Niiya, F., Xie, X., Lee, K.S., Inoue, H., Miki, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Phosphorylation of the cytokinesis regulator ECT2 at G2/M phase stimulates association of the mitotic kinase Plk1 and accumulation of GTP-bound RhoA. Niiya, F., Tatsumoto, T., Lee, K.S., Miki, T. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Rho exchange factor ECT2 is induced by growth factors and regulates cytokinesis through the N-terminal cell cycle regulator-related domains. Saito, S., Tatsumoto, T., Lorenzi, M.V., Chedid, M., Kapoor, V., Sakata, H., Rubin, J., Miki, T. J. Cell. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The epithelial cell transforming sequence 2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases, is repressed by p53 via protein methyltransferases and is required for G1-S transition. Scoumanne, A., Chen, X. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Centralspindlin regulates ECT2 and RhoA accumulation at the equatorial cortex during cytokinesis. Nishimura, Y., Yonemura, S. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Cell type-specific regulation of RhoA activity during cytokinesis. Yoshizaki, H., Ohba, Y., Parrini, M.C., Dulyaninova, N.G., Bresnick, A.R., Mochizuki, N., Matsuda, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Cytokinesis regulator ECT2 changes its conformation through phosphorylation at Thr-341 in G2/M phase. Hara, T., Abe, M., Inoue, H., Yu, L.R., Veenstra, T.D., Kang, Y.H., Lee, K.S., Miki, T. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Chromosomal localization of the human ECT2 proto-oncogene to 3q26.1-->q26.2 by somatic cell analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Takai, S., Long, J.E., Yamada, K., Miki, T. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
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