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Gene Review

qacJ  -  qacJ

Staphylococcus aureus

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Disease relevance of qacJ


High impact information on qacJ


Chemical compound and disease context of qacJ


Biological context of qacJ

  • We identified a novel plasmid-borne gene (designated qacJ) encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in three staphylococcal species associated with chronic infections in four horses. qacJ was located on a 2,650-bp plasmid (designated pNVH01), a new member of the pC194 family of rolling-circle replication plasmids [1].
  • These data, combined with previous work from our laboratory and genome sequence data, indicate that S. aureus possesses several multidrug efflux pump proteins and it is apparent that C8-OMe fluoroquinolones can be substrates for such pumps [14].
  • Compound 1 was evaluated against a strain of S. aureus possessing the NorA multidrug efflux pump and was shown to inhibit ethidium bromide efflux with an IC50 of 50 microM, but this activity is likely to be related to the inhibition of a pump(s) other than NorA [15].
  • There are more than 30 genes for putative multidrug efflux pumps in the chromosome of Staphylococcus aureus [16].

Associations of qacJ with chemical compounds

  • The benzalkonium chloride MIC for a qacJ-containing recombinant was higher than those for otherwise isogenic recombinants expressing Smr, QacG, or QacH [1].
  • Altered ethidium uptake and efflux, as well as increased MICs of other organic cations, suggest that SA K1748 possesses a non-NorA multidrug efflux transporter that is inducible by its substrates [17].
  • In addition, salicylate induction upregulates two antibiotic target genes and downregulates a multidrug efflux pump gene repressor (mgrA) and sarR, which represses a gene (sarA) important for intrinsic antimicrobial resistance [18].
  • When incorporated into the growth medium at 20 microg/mL, both compounds exhibited a four-fold potentiation of the activity of norfloxacin against a norfloxacin-resistant strain of S. aureus overexpressing the NorA multidrug efflux pump [19].
  • Moreover, the facts that the NOR MIC, but not the SPX MIC, decreased in the presence of multidrug efflux pump inhibitors, that NOR accumulation decreased in the cells, and that the EmeA mRNA expression level did not change, strongly suggested that a NorA-like efflux pump, rather than EmeA, was involved in resistance to NOR [20].

Other interactions of qacJ

  • Moreover, PCR amplification and Southern blot hybridization experiments failed to find genes phylogenetically related to the qacA and smr genes, encoding multidrug efflux systems previously described for the genus Staphylococcus [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of qacJ


  1. Novel plasmid-borne gene qacJ mediates resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in equine Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus intermedius. Bjorland, J., Steinum, T., Sunde, M., Waage, S., Heir, E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. The multidrug efflux transporter of Bacillus subtilis is a structural and functional homolog of the Staphylococcus NorA protein. Neyfakh, A.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Emerging issues in antibiotic resistant infections in long-term care facilities. Bonomo, R.A., Rice, L.B. J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Localization of the forskolin labeling sites to both halves of P-glycoprotein: similarity of the sites labeled by forskolin and prazosin. Morris, D.I., Greenberger, L.M., Bruggemann, E.P., Cardarelli, C., Gottesman, M.M., Pastan, I., Seamon, K.B. Mol. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Low-level resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 in vitro associated with qacA gene carriage is independent of multidrug efflux pump activity. Bayer, A.S., Kupferwasser, L.I., Brown, M.H., Skurray, R.A., Grkovic, S., Jones, T., Mukhopadhay, K., Yeaman, M.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. MepR, a Repressor of the Staphylococcus aureus MATE Family Multidrug Efflux Pump MepA, Is a Substrate-Responsive Regulatory Protein. Kaatz, G.W., Demarco, C.E., Seo, S.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Global transcriptional response of Bacillus subtilis to treatment with subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis. Lin, J.T., Connelly, M.B., Amolo, C., Otani, S., Yaver, D.S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of promoter region mutations and mgrA overexpression on transcription of norA, which encodes a Staphylococcus aureus multidrug efflux transporter. Kaatz, G.W., Thyagarajan, R.V., Seo, S.M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. The effect of reserpine, an inhibitor of multidrug efflux pumps, on the in-vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin and moxifloxacin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Schmitz, F.J., Fluit, A.C., Lückefahr, M., Engler, B., Hofmann, B., Verhoef, J., Heinz, H.P., Hadding, U., Jones, M.E. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Phenylpiperidine selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors interfere with multidrug efflux pump activity in Staphylococcus aureus. Kaatz, G.W., Moudgal, V.V., Seo, S.M., Hansen, J.B., Kristiansen, J.E. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. The multidrug efflux pump NorA is not required for salicylate-induced reduction in drug accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus. Price, C.T., Kaatz, G.W., Gustafson, J.E. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Structural differences between paroxetine and femoxetine responsible for differential inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus efflux pumps. Wei, P., Kaatz, G.W., Kerns, R.J. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. The effect of reserpine, a modulator of multidrug efflux pumps, on the in vitro activity of tetracycline against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) possessing the tet(K) determinant. Gibbons, S., Udo, E.E. Phytotherapy research : PTR. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification and characterization of a novel efflux-related multidrug resistance phenotype in Staphylococcus aureus. Kaatz, G.W., Moudgal, V.V., Seo, S.M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Antibacterial and resistance modifying activity of Rosmarinus officinalis. Oluwatuyi, M., Kaatz, G.W., Gibbons, S. Phytochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Gene cloning and characterization of SdrM, a chromosomally-encoded multidrug efflux pump, from Staphylococcus aureus. Yamada, Y., Hideka, K., Shiota, S., Kuroda, T., Tsuchiya, T. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence for the existence of a multidrug efflux transporter distinct from NorA in Staphylococcus aureus. Kaatz, G.W., Seo, S.M., O'Brien, L., Wahiduzzaman, M., Foster, T.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Response of Staphylococcus aureus to Salicylate Challenge. Riordan, J.T., Muthaiyan, A., Van Voorhies, W., Price, C.T., Graham, J.E., Wilkinson, B.J., Gustafson, J.E. J. Bacteriol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Catechin gallates inhibit multidrug resistance (MDR) in Staphylococcus aureus. Gibbons, S., Moser, E., Kaatz, G.W. Planta Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Topoisomerase mutations and efflux are associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. Oyamada, Y., Ito, H., Inoue, M., Yamagishi, J. J. Med. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Low sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to quaternary ammonium compounds. Mereghetti, L., Quentin, R., Marquet-Van Der Mee, N., Audurier, A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Polyacylated oligosaccharides from medicinal Mexican morning glory species as antibacterials and inhibitors of multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Pereda-Miranda, R., Kaatz, G.W., Gibbons, S. J. Nat. Prod. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Mechanism of quinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Tanaka, M., Wang, T., Onodera, Y., Uchida, Y., Sato, K. J. Infect. Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
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