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Gene Review

PGF  -  placental growth factor

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Disease relevance of PGF

  • Placenta growth factor (PlGF) has been implicated in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis; however, little is known about what regulates its expression [1].
  • Vascular insufficiency and retinal ischemia precede many proliferative retinopathies and stimulate secretion of various vasoactive growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PlGF) [2].
  • To determine an effective dose for use in the obese mice, the ability of daily injections of PGF to stimulate growth of phenotypically normal mice of the same strain was assessed in a 10-day weight gain assay [3].
  • Estradiol-17beta stimulated uterine production and release of PGF and protein as measured in flushings (experiment 2) as well as plasma PGFM responses (experiments 1 and 2) [4].

High impact information on PGF


Chemical compound and disease context of PGF

  • Effect of estradiol-17beta on PGF and total protein content in bovine uterine flushings and peripheral plasma concentration of 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF(2alpha) [4].

Biological context of PGF


Anatomical context of PGF

  • Furthermore, antisense inhibition of PlGF protein production lowered the endothelial cell synthesis of DNA under hypoxic conditions [8].
  • In endothelial cells, VEGF (100 ng/ml) and glucose (15 mM) induced an increase in expression of PlGF at both the mRNA and protein level while no effect was observed for pericytes [1].
  • Northern analysis has shown, that the PlGF gene is expressed only in a limited number of cell types and tissues, e.g. human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVE) and placenta [9].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the specificity of and possible synergism among polypeptide growth factors (PGF) on the net synthesis of proteoglycan and a novel high molecular weight anionic glycoprotein (HMW AG), of roughly 540 kDa, by articular chondrocyte cultures [10].
  • The basal glucose oxidation rate in adipose tissue from diabetic rats was stimulated (P less than 0.01) by PGF, but the tissue was not sensitive to insulin added in vitro [11].

Associations of PGF with chemical compounds

  • The increase in PlGF expression could be totally abolished by blocking VEGFR-2, and in the case of glucose by neutralising VEGF [1].
  • To assess the effects of the PGF on the synthesis of the HMW AG, a toluidine blue dye batch precipitation method was used for isolation of anionic glycoconjugates from the media of the 3H and 35S labeled articular chondrocyte cultures, followed by chondroitinase ABC digestion and gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [10].
  • SDS-PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol showed that the affinity-purified PGF contained three protein bands with apparent Mrs of 27.5 K, 22 K, and 16.7 K [12].
  • To take advantage of this characteristic in a purification scheme for PGF, rabbit liver microsomes were solubilized in Triton X-100 and the hGH receptors were purified over an hGH affinity column [12].

Other interactions of PGF


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PGF


  1. Expression of placenta growth factor is regulated by both VEGF and hyperglycaemia via VEGFR-2. Zhao, B., Cai, J., Boulton, M. Microvasc. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 sustains angiogenesis and Bcl-2 expression via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in endothelial cells. Cai, J., Ahmad, S., Jiang, W.G., Huang, J., Kontos, C.D., Boulton, M., Ahmed, A. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The growth factor from plerocercoid larvae of the tapeworm, Spirometra mansonoides, stimulates growth but is not diabetogenic. Salem, M.A., Phares, C.K. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of estradiol-17beta on PGF and total protein content in bovine uterine flushings and peripheral plasma concentration of 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF(2alpha). Bartol, F.F., Thatcher, W.W., Lewis, G.S., Bliss, E.L., Drost, M., Bazer, F.W. Theriogenology (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Erythroblasts are a source of angiogenic factors. Tordjman, R., Delaire, S., Plouët, J., Ting, S., Gaulard, P., Fichelson, S., Roméo, P.H., Lemarchandel, V. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Neuropilin-1 is a placenta growth factor-2 receptor. Migdal, M., Huppertz, B., Tessler, S., Comforti, A., Shibuya, M., Reich, R., Baumann, H., Neufeld, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Purification and characterization of a human pituitary growth factor. Rowe, J.M., Henry, S.F., Friesen, H.G. Biochemistry (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B and C expression in microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes. Implication in autocrine and paracrine regulation of angiogenesis. Yonekura, H., Sakurai, S., Liu, X., Migita, H., Wang, H., Yamagishi, S., Nomura, M., Abedin, M.J., Unoki, H., Yamamoto, Y., Yamamoto, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. A heparin-binding form of placenta growth factor (PlGF-2) is expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in placenta. Hauser, S., Weich, H.A. Growth Factors (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Specificity and synergism of polypeptide growth factors in stimulating the synthesis of proteoglycans and a novel high molecular weight anionic glycoprotein by articular chondrocyte cultures. Chopra, R., Anastassiades, T. J. Rheumatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Some biochemical effects of the growth hormone analogue produced by plerocercoids of the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides on carbohydrate metabolism of adipose tissue from normal, diabetic, and hypophysectomized rats. Salem, M.A., Phares, C.K. J. Parasitol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Use of receptor affinity chromatography in purification of the growth hormone-like factor produced by plerocercoids of the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides. Phares, C.K. J. Recept. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
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