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Gene Review

MID1  -  midline 1

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of MID1

  • All the antisera used stained two or more clusters of perikarya, localized anteriorly and posteriorly near the midline within each unfused abdominal ganglion [1].
  • Salmonella was found more often on hide swabs collected from the midline than on than samples collected from the withers from animals transported in both clean and dirty trailers [2].
  • Advantages of the ventral pararectal approach over the lateral approach to the seminal vesicles are that all dissection is on the midline between the rectum and pelvic urethra and the prevalence of intraoperative hemorrhage and postoperative hematoma formation is decreased [3].

High impact information on MID1

  • The desmosome structures such as the midline, the trilaminar membrane profile, and the desmosomal plaque appeared well preserved and were notably resistant to the various treatments employed [4].
  • The core consists of a pair of membranes, one on either side of a cross-striated intercellular space bisected by a denser midline [5].
  • Immunoreactive cell bodies in the suboesophageal and abdominal ganglia are confined to the midline and are distributed along the anterior-posterior axis both dorsally and ventrally [6].
  • The subcommissural organ (SCO) is an ependymal differentiation located in the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon under the posterior commissure [7].
  • The posterior cluster of midline cells comprised immunopositive perikarya all but one of which also projected via the anterior median nerve to innervate the neurohaemal organ [1].

Biological context of MID1


Anatomical context of MID1

  • Its position was established by determining the distance between the margin of the left side of the abomasum and the ventral midline at two sites [9].
  • Up to three sagittal slices (600 microns) of hypothalamus, immediately parallel to the midline, were cut in an oxygenated balanced salt solution at 4 degrees C, placed in 5 cc syringes, and perifused at 37 degrees C with oxygenated minimum essential medium-alpha at a flow rate of 0.15 ml/min [10].
  • The only consistent pattern distribution was that mff were recovered from all 10 hides at four sample sites along the ventral midline near the umbilicus [11].
  • Both calves exhibited an elevated midline of the hard palate [12].
  • A Tuohy needle was inserted into the L1-2 intervertebral space from a dorsal midline approach, positioning of the needle tip in the epidural space was confirmed by use of the hanging drop technique, the needle was slowly advanced 7 to 10 mm to penetrate the epidural fat, and the anesthetic solution was then administered [13].

Associations of MID1 with chemical compounds

  • Following administration of a local anesthetic (lidocaine), a small incision was made in the skin between the 12th and 13th ribs approximately 15 cm from the dorsal midline [14].
  • Holstein heifers in a confined feedlot setting on a southern California dairy were either sprayed individually along the ventral midline using 0.2% permethrin (250 ml/animal) (two pens) or were not treated (two pens) [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MID1

  • Animals in the treated and control groups received an injection of doramectin or saline in the lateral midline of the neck [16].
  • Right paralumbar fossa, left paralumbar fossa, and cranioventral midline laparoscopy were performed 72 hours apart of each cow [17].
  • The six fixation techniques were the simple midline sublaminar C1 wiring (SMW), the modified Gallie wiring (MGW), the Brook wedge arthrodesis (BWA), the bilateral lateral mass screw (LMS), and the Clark arthrodesis without (CWO) and with (CW) the adjunctive use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement [18].
  • Peritoneal fluid was collected from standing horses by inserting a bovine teat cannula into the horses abdomen through the linea alba after desensitisation of the skin on the ventral midline with local anaesthetic [19].
  • Under general anesthesia and through a midline incision, catheters were anchored in the ampullar region of the oviduct with ligatures of silk or steel and the uterotubal junction ligated [20].


  1. An identified dorsal unpaired median neurone and bilaterally projecting neurones exhibiting bovine pancreatic polypeptide-like/FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in abdominal ganglia of the migratory locust. Ferber, M., Pflüger, H.J. Cell Tissue Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Impact of transportation of feedlot cattle to the harvest facility on the prevalence of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella, and total aerobic microorganisms on hides. Reicks, A.L., Brashears, M.M., Adams, K.D., Brooks, J.C., Blanton, J.R., Miller, M.F. J. Food Prot. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Ventral pararectal approach to the seminal vesicles of bulls. Hooper, R.N., Taylor, T.S., Blanchard, T.L., Schumacher, J., Edwards, J.F. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Structure and biochemical composition of desmosomes and tonofilaments isolated from calf muzzle epidermis. Drochmans, P., Freudenstein, C., Wanson, J.C., Laurent, L., Keenan, T.W., Stadler, J., Leloup, R., Franke, W.W. J. Cell Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Dissection of the bovine epidermal desmosome into cytoplasmic protein and membrane glycoprotein domains. Skerrow, C.J., Hunter, I., Skerrow, D. J. Cell. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. The distribution of bovine pancreatic polypeptide/FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the ventral nervous system of the locust. Myers, C.M., Evans, P.D. J. Comp. Neurol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Continuous delivery of a monoclonal antibody against Reissner's fiber into CSF reveals CSF-soluble material immunorelated to the subcommissural organ in early chick embryos. Hoyo-Becerra, C., L??pez-Avalos, M.D., P??rez, J., Miranda, E., Rojas-R??os, P., Fern??ndez-Llebrez, P., Grondona, J.M. Cell Tissue Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of organic phosphate systemic insecticides on bovine embryonic survival and development. Bellows, R.A., Rumsey, T.S., Kasson, C.W., Bond, J., Warwick, E.J., Pahnish, O.F. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Position of the abomasum in dairy cows during the first six weeks after calving. Van Winden, S.C., Brattinga, C.R., Müller, K.E., Noordhuizen, J.P., Beynen, A.C. Vet. Rec. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin from perifused, bovine hypothalamic slices. I. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor regulation. West, C.R., Gaynor, P.J., Lookingland, K.J., Tucker, H.A. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Distribution of Onchocerca spp. microfilariae in the dermis of cattle. Ferenc, S.A., Harty, T.M., Courtney, C.H., Copeman, D.B. Vet. Parasitol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Chromosome evaluation of Angus calves with unilateral congenital cleft lip and jaw (cheilognathoschisis). Swartz, H.A., Vogt, D.W., Kintner, L.D. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Epidural administration of fixed volumes of xylazine and lidocaine for anesthesia of dairy cattle undergoing flank surgery. Lee, I., Yamada, H. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Technical note: a technique for multiple liver biopsies in neonatal calves. Swanson, K.S., Merchen, N.R., Erdman, J.W., Drackley, J.K., Orias, F., Douglas, G.N., Huhn, J.C. J. Anim. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Failure of a permethrin treatment regime to protect cattle against bluetongue virus. Mullens, B.A., Gerry, A.C., Velten, R.K. J. Med. Entomol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Efficacy of doramectin against field nematode infections of cattle in Latin America. Eddi, C., Bianchin, I., Honer, M.R., Muniz, R.A., Caracostantogolo, J., do Nascimento, Y.A. Vet. Parasitol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Normal laparoscopic anatomy of the bovine abdomen. Anderson, D.E., Gaughan, E.M., St-Jean, G. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. A biomechanical analysis of atlantoaxial stabilization methods using a bovine model. C1/C2 fixation analysis. Smith, M.D., Kotzar, G., Yoo, J., Bohlman, H. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. A clinincal evaluation of abdominal paracentesis in the horse. Swanwick, R.A., Wilkinson, J.S. Aust. Vet. J. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Collection of oviduct fluid in heifers. Greve, T., Schmidt, M., Høst Hansen, T. DTW. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. (1996) [Pubmed]
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