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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Extracellular Space

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Disease relevance of Extracellular Space


Psychiatry related information on Extracellular Space


High impact information on Extracellular Space


Chemical compound and disease context of Extracellular Space


Biological context of Extracellular Space


Anatomical context of Extracellular Space


Associations of Extracellular Space with chemical compounds

  • When the extracellular [K+] rises in brain ischaemia, uptake reverses, releasing glutamate into the extracellular space [29].
  • Tonic activation of adenosine receptors by adenosine that is normally present in the extracellular space in brain tissue leads to inhibitory effects that appear to be mediated by both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors [30].
  • For amino acids and monoamines, this is achieved by their uptake into the cell by specific high-affinity transporters; acetylcholine is first broken down in the extracellular space and then choline is taken up by the cell [31].
  • Images of the intrinsic optical signal acquired during these slice experiments indicated that furosemide coincidentally blocked changes in extracellular space [32].
  • The cell-cell channels are permeable to relatively large molecules, and it was thought that opening of hemichannels to the extracellular space would kill cells through loss of metabolites, collapse of ionic gradients and influx of Ca(2+) [33].

Gene context of Extracellular Space

  • We used genetic and immunological assays to show that CLV3 localizes to the apoplast and that export to the extracellular space is required for its function in activating the CLV1/CLV2 receptor complex [34].
  • It is widely believed that these Abeta peptides are secreted into the extracellular spaces of the CNS, where they assemble into toxic oligomers that kill neurons and eventually form deposits of senile plaques [35].
  • Since HI epidermis displays abnormal lamellar granule formation, ABCA12 may play a critical role in the formation of lamellar granules and the discharge of lipids into the intercellular spaces, which would explain the epidermal barrier defect seen in this disorder [36].
  • Thus, TGase 2-catalyzed protein polymerization contributes to the ultrastructural changes typical of dying apoptotic cells; it stabilizes the integrity of the apoptotic cells, preventing the release of harmful intracellular components into the extracellular space and, consequently, inflammation and scar formation [37].
  • The presence of a motif in BRCA1 characteristic of a family of proteins known as granins, has led to the suggestion that the protein is secreted into the extracellular space [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Extracellular Space


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  2. Effect of adenosine on atrioventricular conduction. II: Modulation of atrioventricular node transmission by adenosine in hypoxic isolated guinea pig hearts. Clemo, H.F., Belardinelli, L. Circ. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Superoxide generation and reversal of acetylcholine-induced cerebral arteriolar dilation after acute hypertension. Wei, E.P., Kontos, H.A., Christman, C.W., DeWitt, D.S., Povlishock, J.T. Circ. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Intracellular pool of vascular endothelial growth factor in human neutrophils. Gaudry, M., Brégerie, O., Andrieu, V., El Benna, J., Pocidalo, M.A., Hakim, J. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunohistochemical and biochemical study of a cathepsin B-like proteinase in human colonic cancers. Keppler, D., Fondanèche, M.C., Dalet-Fumeron, V., Pagano, M., Burtin, P. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Synaptic activity regulates interstitial fluid amyloid-beta levels in vivo. Cirrito, J.R., Yamada, K.A., Finn, M.B., Sloviter, R.S., Bales, K.R., May, P.C., Schoepp, D.D., Paul, S.M., Mennerick, S., Holtzman, D.M. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Multicompartmental analysis of amino acids. III. Tyrosine in affective disorder. Shaw, D.M., Tidmarsh, S.F., Johnson, A.L., Michalakeas, A.C., Riley, G.J., Blazek, R., MacSweeney, D.A., Francis, A.F., Hewland, R. Psychological medicine. (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Changes in serotonin level in the hypoglossal nucleus region during carbachol-induced atonia. Kubin, L., Reignier, C., Tojima, H., Taguchi, O., Pack, A.I., Davies, R.O. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Emilin1 links TGF-beta maturation to blood pressure homeostasis. Zacchigna, L., Vecchione, C., Notte, A., Cordenonsi, M., Dupont, S., Maretto, S., Cifelli, G., Ferrari, A., Maffei, A., Fabbro, C., Braghetta, P., Marino, G., Selvetella, G., Aretini, A., Colonnese, C., Bettarini, U., Russo, G., Soligo, S., Adorno, M., Bonaldo, P., Volpin, D., Piccolo, S., Lembo, G., Bressan, G.M. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Fras1 deficiency results in cryptophthalmos, renal agenesis and blebbed phenotype in mice. Vrontou, S., Petrou, P., Meyer, B.I., Galanopoulos, V.K., Imai, K., Yanagi, M., Chowdhury, K., Scambler, P.J., Chalepakis, G. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. LDL receptor-related protein internalizes and degrades uPA-PAI-1 complexes and is essential for embryo implantation. Herz, J., Clouthier, D.E., Hammer, R.E. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification of prion amyloid filaments in scrapie-infected brain. DeArmond, S.J., McKinley, M.P., Barry, R.A., Braunfeld, M.B., McColloch, J.R., Prusiner, S.B. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. The clock gene Per2 influences the glutamatergic system and modulates alcohol consumption. Spanagel, R., Pendyala, G., Abarca, C., Zghoul, T., Sanchis-Segura, C., Magnone, M.C., Lascorz, J., Depner, M., Holzberg, D., Soyka, M., Schreiber, S., Matsuda, F., Lathrop, M., Schumann, G., Albrecht, U. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Ultrastructure of hypothalamic and medullary lesions caused by an aliphatic triamine. Nochlin, D., Levine, S. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of glutamate uptake with L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate potentiates glutamate toxicity in primary hippocampal cultures. Robinson, M.B., Djali, S., Buchhalter, J.R. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Concentrations of amino acids in extracellular fluid after opening of the blood-brain barrier by intracarotid infusion of protamine sulfate. Westergren, I., Nyström, B., Hamberger, A., Nordborg, C., Johansson, B.B. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Penetration of piperacillin and tazobactam into inflamed soft tissue of patients with diabetic foot infection. Legat, F.J., Krause, R., Zenahlik, P., Hoffmann, C., Scholz, S., Salmhofer, W., Tscherpel, J., Tscherpel, T., Kerl, H., Dittrich, P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Temperature dependence of extracellular ionic changes evoked by anoxia in hippocampal slices. Morris, M.E., Leblond, J., Agopyan, N., Krnjević, K. J. Neurophysiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Control of glutamate clearance and synaptic efficacy by glial coverage of neurons. Oliet, S.H., Piet, R., Poulain, D.A. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. The prion protein and neuronal zinc homeostasis. Watt, N.T., Hooper, N.M. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Water and electrolyte movement and mucosal morphology in the jejunum of patients with portal hypertension. Norman, D.A., Atkins, J.M., Seelig, L.L., Gomez-Sanchez, C., Krejs, G.J. Gastroenterology (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and recycling of the transferrin receptor in rat reticulocytes. Harding, C., Heuser, J., Stahl, P. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Arabidopsis CYP86A2 represses Pseudomonas syringae type III genes and is required for cuticle development. Xiao, F., Goodwin, S.M., Xiao, Y., Sun, Z., Baker, D., Tang, X., Jenks, M.A., Zhou, J.M. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Disruption of the gene encoding the latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein 4 (LTBP-4) causes abnormal lung development, cardiomyopathy, and colorectal cancer. Sterner-Kock, A., Thorey, I.S., Koli, K., Wempe, F., Otte, J., Bangsow, T., Kuhlmeier, K., Kirchner, T., Jin, S., Keski-Oja, J., von Melchner, H. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of luminal hyperosmolality on cellular and paracellular ion transport pathways in necturus antrum. Soybel, D.I., Ashley, S.W., DeSchryver-Kecskemeti, K., Cheung, L.Y. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Long-term continuous glucose monitoring with microdialysis in ambulatory insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Bolinder, J., Ungerstedt, U., Arner, P. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Topological distribution of two connexin32 antigenic sites in intact and split rodent hepatocyte gap junctions. Goodenough, D.A., Paul, D.L., Jesaitis, L. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Extracellular matrix formation by chondrocytes in monolayer culture. Dessau, W., Vertel, B.M., von der Mark, H., von der Mark, K. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Modulation of non-vesicular glutamate release by pH. Billups, B., Attwell, D. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. The role and regulation of adenosine in the central nervous system. Dunwiddie, T.V., Masino, S.A. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Neuronal release of soluble nucleotidases and their role in neurotransmitter inactivation. Todorov, L.D., Mihaylova-Todorova, S., Westfall, T.D., Sneddon, P., Kennedy, C., Bjur, R.A., Westfall, D.P. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Dissociation of synchronization and excitability in furosemide blockade of epileptiform activity. Hochman, D.W., Baraban, S.C., Owens, J.W., Schwartzkroin, P.A. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. New roles for astrocytes: gap junction hemichannels have something to communicate. Bennett, M.V., Contreras, J.E., Bukauskas, F.F., Sáez, J.C. Trends Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. CLV3 is localized to the extracellular space, where it activates the Arabidopsis CLAVATA stem cell signaling pathway. Rojo, E., Sharma, V.K., Kovaleva, V., Raikhel, N.V., Fletcher, J.C. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. An alternative interpretation of the amyloid Abeta hypothesis with regard to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Marchesi, V.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Mutations in ABCA12 underlie the severe congenital skin disease harlequin ichthyosis. Kelsell, D.P., Norgett, E.E., Unsworth, H., Teh, M.T., Cullup, T., Mein, C.A., Dopping-Hepenstal, P.J., Dale, B.A., Tadini, G., Fleckman, P., Stephens, K.G., Sybert, V.P., Mallory, S.B., North, B.V., Witt, D.R., Sprecher, E., Taylor, A.E., Ilchyshyn, A., Kennedy, C.T., Goodyear, H., Moss, C., Paige, D., Harper, J.I., Young, B.D., Leigh, I.M., Eady, R.A., O'Toole, E.A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Gene disruption of tissue transglutaminase. De Laurenzi, V., Melino, G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Recent advances in understanding of genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. Stratton, M.R. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Regeneration-associated high level expression of apolipoprotein D mRNA in endoneurial fibroblasts of peripheral nerve. Spreyer, P., Schaal, H., Kuhn, G., Rothe, T., Unterbeck, A., Olek, K., Müller, H.W. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  40. X-ray diffraction from intraneuronal paired helical filaments and extraneuronal amyloid fibers in Alzheimer disease indicates cross-beta conformation. Kirschner, D.A., Abraham, C., Selkoe, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  41. Biochemical and immunochemical study of lysyl oxidase in experimental hepatic fibrosis in the rat. Siegel, R.C., Chen, K.H., Greenspan, J.S., Aguiar, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  42. Active and passive immunization against angiotensin II in the rat and rabbit. Evidence for a normal regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. Oster, P., Bauknecht, H., Hackenthal, E. Circ. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
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