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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Ascitic Fluid

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Disease relevance of Ascitic Fluid

  • To assess the importance of bacteremic pneumococcal disease among the population of one "average" American community, we studied all hospitalized patients who had Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from blood, CSF, pleural fluid, or ascitic fluid during the years 1978 through 1981 in Huntington, WVa, and environs [1].
  • We have identified a soluble form of the human urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) in the ascitic fluids from patients with ovarian cancer [2].
  • Suppressive factors in ascitic fluids and sera of mice bearing ascites tumors [3].
  • Biologically active and immunoreactive TGF alpha was measured in the pleural effusions or in the ascitic fluids from 37 noncancer and 63 cancer patients [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cirrhotic patients with low ascitic fluid protein levels (</=1 g /dL) and high bilirubin level and/or low platelet count are at high risk of developing a first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis during long-term follow-up [5].

Psychiatry related information on Ascitic Fluid


High impact information on Ascitic Fluid


Chemical compound and disease context of Ascitic Fluid


Biological context of Ascitic Fluid


Anatomical context of Ascitic Fluid


Associations of Ascitic Fluid with chemical compounds

  • From these, seven lines of RMS were obtained as xenografts, each retaining the histologic characteristics of the tumor of origin and human lactate dehydrogenase isozymes; these represented 6 of the 11 surgical specimens, whereas one line originated from the transplanted cells from ascitic fluid [27].
  • Cells grown in the ascitic fluid were very sensitive to cortisol inhibition of tritiated thymidine ([3H]dThd) incorporation [28].
  • Repeated low doses (10 mg/kg) of taumustine promoted a 250% increase in life-span for mice bearing P388 (intraperitoneal), the absence of ascitic fluid from day 4 onward, and the presence of pulmonary emboli from day 5 onward [29].
  • In multivariate analysis (Cox's regression model) including only variables commonly used in clinical practice, ascitic fluid protein concentration and serum bilirubin level independently correlated with first SBP development [30].
  • Peak serum levels and trough serum and ascitic fluid levels of ofloxacin and cefotaxime measured on days 3 (23 patients) and 6 (11 patients) of therapy were greater than the minimal inhibitory concentration of isolated organisms [31].

Gene context of Ascitic Fluid


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ascitic Fluid

  • The immunoreactivity of the purified uPAR from the ascitic fluid is indistinguishable from that of characterized uPAR, demonstrated by Western blotting with three different anti-uPAR monoclonal antibodies [2].
  • Very close correlation was noted for phosphorus, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, potassium, bicarbonate, and sodium (r greater than 0.82, p less than 10(-6)), and we conclude that peritoneal fluid may be useful for monitoring these chemistries [36].
  • For this purpose, the high-molecular-mass fibrin degradation products (HMM-XDP) were isolated from malignant ascitic fluid by protamine sulfate precipitation and further purified by gel filtration and acid precipitation [37].
  • Variations in serum and ascitic fluid of C3 and C4 and ascitic fluid total protein after therapy were compared with those of a control group of 14 untreated patients with similar characteristics [38].
  • Curve analysis of the opsonic activity compared to the ascitic fluid concentration of total protein, total hemolytic complement, C3 and C4 yielded correlation coefficients of 0.84 (p less than 0.001), 0.84 (p less than 0.001), 0.94 (p less than 0.001) and 0.92 (p less than 0.001), respectively [39].


  1. Pneumococcal disease in a medium-sized community in the United States. Mufson, M.A., Oley, G., Hughey, D. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. A ligand-free, soluble urokinase receptor is present in the ascitic fluid from patients with ovarian cancer. Pedersen, N., Schmitt, M., Rønne, E., Nicoletti, M.I., Høyer-Hansen, G., Conese, M., Giavazzi, R., Dano, K., Kuhn, W., Jänicke, F. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Suppressive factors in ascitic fluids and sera of mice bearing ascites tumors. Elleman, C.J., Eidinger, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. mRNA expression of transforming growth factor alpha in human breast carcinomas and its activity in effusions of breast cancer patients. Ciardiello, F., Kim, N., Liscia, D.S., Bianco, C., Lidereau, R., Merlo, G., Callahan, R., Greiner, J., Szpak, C., Kidwell, W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Risk of a first community-acquired spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotics with low ascitic fluid protein levels. Guarner, C., Solà, R., Soriano, G., Andreu, M., Novella, M.T., Vila, M.C., Sàbat, M., Coll, S., Ortiz, J., Gómez, C., Balanzó, J. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Low gradient ascites: a seven-year course review. Mansour-Ghanaei, F., Shafaghi, A., Bagherzadeh, A.H., Fallah, M.S. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. C5a-inhibitor deficiency in peritoneal fluids from patients with familial Mediterranean fever. Matzner, Y., Brzezinski, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Induction of lupus-associated autoantibodies in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection of pristane. Satoh, M., Reeves, W.H. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunosuppressive activity of a subline of the mouse EL-4 lymphoma. Evidence for minute virus of mice causing the inhibition. Bonnard, G.D., Manders, E.K., Campbell, D.A., Herberman, R.B., Collins, M.J. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Mast cell dipeptidyl peptidase I mediates survival from sepsis. Mallen-St Clair, J., Pham, C.T., Villalta, S.A., Caughey, G.H., Wolters, P.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Lysophosphatidic acid induction of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human ovarian cancer cells. Hu, Y.L., Tee, M.K., Goetzl, E.J., Auersperg, N., Mills, G.B., Ferrara, N., Jaffe, R.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Value of ascitic lipids in the differentiation between cirrhotic and malignant ascites. Jüngst, D., Gerbes, A.L., Martin, R., Paumgartner, G. Hepatology (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Ascitic fluid analysis in malignancy-related ascites. Runyon, B.A., Hoefs, J.C., Morgan, T.R. Hepatology (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a prospective study of twenty-seven cases in cirrhotic patients. Grange, J.D., Amiot, X., Grange, V., Gutmann, L., Biour, M., Bodin, F., Poupon, R. Hepatology (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Aztreonam vs. cefotaxime in the treatment of gram-negative spontaneous peritonitis in cirrhotic patients. Ariza, J., Xiol, X., Esteve, M., Fernández Bañeres, F., Liñares, J., Alonso, T., Gudiol, F. Hepatology (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Loss of coordinated androgen regulation in nonmalignant ovarian epithelial cells with BRCA1/2 mutations and ovarian cancer cells. Evangelou, A., Letarte, M., Jurisica, I., Sultan, M., Murphy, K.J., Rosen, B., Brown, T.J. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Pepstatin, an ascites retardant of L1210 tumor-bearing mice. Greenbaum, L.M., Semente, G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Proteases during the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor. I. The fibrinolysin system. LeBlanc, P.P., Back, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Selective intestinal decontamination prevents spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Soriano, G., Guarner, C., Teixidó, M., Such, J., Barrios, J., Enríquez, J., Vilardell, F. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Pulmonary vasodilatory action of endogenous atrial natriuretic factor in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Effects of monoclonal atrial natriuretic factor antibody. Raffestin, B., Levame, M., Eddahibi, S., Viossat, I., Braquet, P., Chabrier, P.E., Cantin, M., Adnot, S. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor released during peritonitis is active on mesothelial cells. Rampino, T., Cancarini, G., Gregorini, M., Guallini, P., Maggio, M., Ranghino, A., Soccio, G., Dal Canton, A. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Intraperitoneal lymphokine-activated killer cell/interleukin-2 therapy in patients with intra-abdominal cancer: immunologic considerations. Urba, W.J., Clark, J.W., Steis, R.G., Bookman, M.A., Smith, J.W., Beckner, S., Maluish, A.E., Rossio, J.L., Rager, H., Ortaldo, J.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. The pH of ascitic fluid in the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in alcoholic cirrhosis. Gitlin, N., Stauffer, J.L., Silvestri, R.C. Hepatology (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Transforming growth factor-alpha production and autoinduction in a colorectal carcinoma cell line (DiFi) with an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor gene. Untawale, S., Zorbas, M.A., Hodgson, C.P., Coffey, R.J., Gallick, G.E., North, S.M., Wildrick, D.M., Olive, M., Blick, M., Yeoman, L.C. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. TGF-beta enhances macrophage ability to produce IL-10 in normal and tumor-bearing mice. Maeda, H., Kuwahara, H., Ichimura, Y., Ohtsuki, M., Kurakata, S., Shiraishi, A. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibitory effect of Toll-like receptor 4 on fusion between phagosomes and endosomes/lysosomes in macrophages. Shiratsuchi, A., Watanabe, I., Takeuchi, O., Akira, S., Nakanishi, Y. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Growth and characterization of childhood rhabdomyosarcomas as xenografts. Houghton, J.A., Houghton, P.J., Webber, B.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Nonmutational alteration in glucocorticoid sensitivity of lymphosarcoma P1798. Davis, J.M., Chan, A.K., Thompson, E.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Modulation by taurine of the toxicity of taumustine, a compound with antitumor activity. Pierson, H.F., Fisher, J.M., Rabinovitz, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Risk factors for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Andreu, M., Sola, R., Sitges-Serra, A., Alia, C., Gallen, M., Vila, M.C., Coll, S., Oliver, M.I. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Randomized, comparative study of oral ofloxacin versus intravenous cefotaxime in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Navasa, M., Follo, A., Llovet, J.M., Clemente, G., Vargas, V., Rimola, A., Marco, F., Guarner, C., Forné, M., Planas, R., Bañares, R., Castells, L., Jimenez De Anta, M.T., Arroyo, V., Rodés, J. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP9 and MMP2) induce the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by ovarian carcinoma cells: implications for ascites formation. Belotti, D., Paganoni, P., Manenti, L., Garofalo, A., Marchini, S., Taraboletti, G., Giavazzi, R. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha induce ascitic fluid in mice. Ohmura, E., Tsushima, T., Kamiya, Y., Okada, M., Onoda, N., Shizume, K., Demura, H. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Tumor cell-specific BRCA1 and RASSF1A hypermethylation in serum, plasma, and peritoneal fluid from ovarian cancer patients. Ibanez de Caceres, I., Battagli, C., Esteller, M., Herman, J.G., Dulaimi, E., Edelson, M.I., Bergman, C., Ehya, H., Eisenberg, B.L., Cairns, P. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Identification of biologically active chemokine isoforms from ascitic fluid and elevated levels of CCL18/pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine in ovarian carcinoma. Schutyser, E., Struyf, S., Proost, P., Opdenakker, G., Laureys, G., Verhasselt, B., Peperstraete, L., Van de Putte, I., Saccani, A., Allavena, P., Mantovani, A., Van Damme, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Comparison of chemical composition of peritoneal fluid and serum: a method for monitoring dialysis patients and a tool for assessing binding to serum proteins in vivo. Kelton, J.G., Ulan, R., Stiller, C., Holmes, E. Ann. Intern. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  37. Role of plasmin in the degradation of the stroma-derived fibrin in human ovarian carcinoma. Wilhelm, O., Hafter, R., Henschen, A., Schmitt, M., Graeff, H. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  38. Selective intestinal decontamination increases serum and ascitic fluid C3 levels in cirrhosis. Such, J., Guarner, C., Soriano, G., Teixidó, M., Barrios, J., Tena, F., Méndez, C., Enríquez, J., Rodríguez, J.L., Vilardell, F. Hepatology (1990) [Pubmed]
  39. Opsonic activity of human ascitic fluid: a potentially important protective mechanism against spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Runyon, B.A., Morrissey, R.L., Hoefs, J.C., Wyle, F.A. Hepatology (1985) [Pubmed]
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