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Disease relevance of Urethra

  • Flexor reflex control of the external sphincter of the urethra in paraplegia [1].
  • Although the male urethra is a proposed reservoir of HPV transmission, the association between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the male urethra has not been studied [2].
  • In males, one of the most common GU malformations associated with loss of Hoxa13 function is hypospadia, a condition defined by the poor growth and closure of the urethra and glans penis [3].
  • One wk after completion of FANFT administration, the suspension of 0.5 ml of Escherichia coli (06K13H1) was injected into the bladder through the urethra [4].
  • The presence or absence of HPV 16 DNA defines two subsets of SCC of the male urethra which differ in the site of occurrence and, possibly, progression [2].

Psychiatry related information on Urethra


High impact information on Urethra

  • At follow-up 6 months to 1 year postoperatively (mean 8 months) all had a good calibre urethra [6].
  • During vitamin A deficiency, mouse urothelium form multiple keratinized foci in proximal urethra probably originating from scattered K14-positive basal cells, and the keratinized epithelium expands horizontally to replace the surrounding normal urothelium [7].
  • Viral shedding from the pharynx, cervix, urethra, and urine were also shorter in acyclovir-treated patients [8].
  • However, the closure defects of the distal urethra and glans can be attributed to a loss of apoptosis in the urethra, which is consistent with reduced Bmp7 expression in this region [3].
  • The highly sensitive technique of polymerase chain reaction with type-specific HPV 16 and 18 primers and general primers, including nine other genotypes was used to survey a series of SCC of the male urethra for the prevalence of an association with HPV [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of Urethra

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an androgen-dependent disease; it originates exclusively in the inner prostate, which includes tissue surrounding the urethra [9].
  • 6. In conclusion, smooth muscle cells of urethra exhibit STDs which are clustered rather than random events, and are the result of spontaneous Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and subsequent activation of Ca2+-activated chloride channels [10].
  • The nonuniform distribution of estrogen-induced squamous metaplasia within the developing prostatic ductal system emphasizes a regional and age-dependent susceptibility to exogenous estrogens in proximal ductal areas (near the urethra) as compared with distal ductal regions of the developing human prostate [11].
  • The present demonstration of specific progesterone receptors in the female urethra might provide a possible link between estrogen progesterone interaction and the appearance of urinary incontinence during pregnancy in women [12].
  • The preferential anatomic site of lichen sclerosus was the foreskin, but other sites (glans and coronal sulcus) including urethra were also involved [13].

Biological context of Urethra


Anatomical context of Urethra


Associations of Urethra with chemical compounds

  • Formation of the male urethra requires the synthesis of testosterone, its activation to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in genital skin, and binding of DHT to the androgen receptor [24].
  • The location of ER in the normal canine prostate and prostatic urethra is consistent with the location of histological changes induced by estrogen administration, indicating that these immunoreactive ER probably represent biologically functional receptors [23].
  • The effects of oestrogens on spontaneous activity and responses to phenylephrine of the mammalian urethra [25].
  • These results indicate that prostatic development and penile growth can be initiated over a wide time period, but that formation of a male urethra requires androgen action before d 70, when male penile differentiation begins [26].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polyurethane-covered retrievable 0.10-mm-thick (n = 11) or 0.15-mm-thick (n = 10) nitinol wire stents were placed in the urethras of 20 dogs [27].

Gene context of Urethra


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Urethra


  1. Flexor reflex control of the external sphincter of the urethra in paraplegia. Jolesz, F.A., Cheng-Tao, X., Ruenzel, P.W., Henneman, E. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Oncogenic human papillomavirus type 16 is associated with squamous cell cancer of the male urethra. Wiener, J.S., Liu, E.T., Walther, P.J. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Loss of Bmp7 and Fgf8 signaling in Hoxa13-mutant mice causes hypospadia. Morgan, E.A., Nguyen, S.B., Scott, V., Stadler, H.S. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Enhancement of N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]formamide-induced carcinogenesis by urinary tract infection in rats. Johansson, S.L., Anderström, C., von Schultz, L., Larsson, P. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Physiological and behavioral consequences in rats of water recycling during lactation. Friedman, M.I., Bruno, J.P., Alberts, J.R. Journal of comparative and physiological psychology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. A new treatment for urethral strictures. Milroy, E.J., Chapple, C.R., Cooper, J.E., Eldin, A., Wallsten, H., Seddon, A.M., Rowles, P.M. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Cellular basis of urothelial squamous metaplasia: roles of lineage heterogeneity and cell replacement. Liang, F.X., Bosland, M.C., Huang, H., Romih, R., Baptiste, S., Deng, F.M., Wu, X.R., Shapiro, E., Sun, T.T. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Intravenous acyclovir for the treatment of primary genital herpes. Corey, L., Fife, K.H., Benedetti, J.K., Winter, C.A., Fahnlander, A., Connor, J.D., Hintz, M.A., Holmes, K.K. Ann. Intern. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Regional variations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, and receptor type I in benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue and their correlation with intraprostatic androgens. Monti, S., Di Silverio, F., Iraci, R., Martini, C., Lanzara, S., Falasca, P., Poggi, M., Stigliano, A., Sciarra, F., Toscano, V. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Spontaneous and neurally activated depolarizations in smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig urethra. Hashitani, H., Edwards, F.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Temporal and spatial factors in diethylstilbestrol-induced squamous metaplasia of the developing human prostate. Sugimura, Y., Cunha, G.R., Yonemura, C.U., Kawamura, J. Hum. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Progesterone receptors in the female lower urinary tract. Batra, S.C., Iosif, C.S. J. Urol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Lichen sclerosus in 68 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: frequent atypias and correlation with special carcinoma variants suggests a precancerous role. Velazquez, E.F., Cubilla, A.L. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Bidirectional signaling mediated by ephrin-B2 and EphB2 controls urorectal development. Dravis, C., Yokoyama, N., Chumley, M.J., Cowan, C.A., Silvany, R.E., Shay, J., Baker, L.A., Henkemeyer, M. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Decreased levels of the androgen receptor in the mature rat phallus are associated with decreased levels of androgen receptor messenger ribonucleic acid. Takane, K.K., Wilson, J.D., McPhaul, M.J. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. 5alpha-reductase type 2 mutations are present in some boys with isolated hypospadias. Silver, R.I., Russell, D.W. J. Urol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of carbachol and norepinephrine on phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis and cyclic AMP levels in guinea pig urinary tract. Wheeler, M.A., Martin, T.V., Weiss, R.M. J. Urol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. The effect of halofuginone, an inhibitor of collagen type i synthesis, on urethral stricture formation: in vivo and in vitro study in a rat model. Nagler, A., Gofrit, O., Ohana, M., Pode, D., Genina, O., Pines, M. J. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. RS-17053 (N-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenoxy)ethyl]-5-chloro-alpha, alpha-dimethyl-1H-indole-3-ethanamine hydrochloride), a selective alpha 1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, displays low affinity for functional alpha 1-adrenoceptors in human prostate: implications for adrenoceptor classification. Ford, A.P., Arredondo, N.F., Blue, D.R., Bonhaus, D.W., Jasper, J., Kava, M.S., Lesnick, J., Pfister, J.R., Shieh, I.A., Vimont, R.L., Williams, T.J., McNeal, J.E., Stamey, T.A., Clarke, D.E. Mol. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Colocalization of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II and mineralocorticoid receptor in human epithelia. Hirasawa, G., Sasano, H., Takahashi, K., Fukushima, K., Suzuki, T., Hiwatashi, N., Toyota, T., Krozowski, Z.S., Nagura, H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Relaxation mechanisms induced by stimulation of nerves and by nitric oxide in sheep urethral muscle. García-Pascual, A., Triguero, D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Sex hormones and the female urinary tract. Miodrag, A., Castleden, C.M., Vallance, T.R. Drugs (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunocytochemical localization of estrogen receptors in the normal male and female canine urinary tract and prostate. Schulze, H., Barrack, E.R. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Lack of defects in androgen production in children with hypospadias. Holmes, N.M., Miller, W.L., Baskin, L.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. The effects of oestrogens on spontaneous activity and responses to phenylephrine of the mammalian urethra. Callahan, S.M., Creed, K.E. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Administration of 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol to female tammar wallaby pouch young causes development of a mature prostate and male urethra. Leihy, M.W., Shaw, G., Renfree, M.B., Wilson, J.D. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Covered, retrievable, expandable urethral nitinol stent: feasibility study in dogs. Ko, G.Y., Kim, G.C., Seo, T.S., Kim, T.H., Lim, J.O., Lee, J.H., Song, H.Y. Radiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. HIV coreceptor and chemokine ligand gene expression in the male urethra and female cervix. McClure, C.P., Tighe, P.J., Robins, R.A., Bansal, D., Bowman, C.A., Kingston, M., Ball, J.K. AIDS (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta during mouse embryogenesis. Lemmen, J.G., Broekhof, J.L., Kuiper, G.G., Gustafsson, J.A., van der Saag, P.T., van der Burg, B. Mech. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of the androgen receptor and 5 alpha-reductase type 2 in the developing human fetal penis and urethra. Kim, K.S., Liu, W., Cunha, G.R., Russell, D.W., Huang, H., Shapiro, E., Baskin, L.S. Cell Tissue Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Differential expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in adult rat accessory sex glands and lower urinary tract. Mäkelä, S., Strauss, L., Kuiper, G., Valve, E., Salmi, S., Santti, R., Gustafsson, J.A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Sex specific expression of progesterone receptor in mouse lower urinary tract. Savolainen, S., Santti, R., Streng, T., Gustafsson, J.A., Härkönen, P., Mäkelä, S. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Bladder and urethral function and supersensitivity to subcutaneously administered bethanechol in cats with chronic cauda equina lesions. el-Salmy, S., Downie, J.W., Awad, S.A. J. Urol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of botulinum toxin A on the autonomic nervous system of the rat lower urinary tract. Smith, C.P., Franks, M.E., McNeil, B.K., Ghosh, R., de Groat, W.C., Chancellor, M.B., Somogyi, G.T. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. The effects of nifedipine and other calcium antagonists on the glibenclamide-sensitive K+ currents in smooth muscle cells from pig urethra. Teramoto, N., Brading, A.F. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. The male perineal sling: comparison of sling materials. Dikranian, A.H., Chang, J.H., Rhee, E.Y., Aboseif, S.R. J. Urol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Urethral function after chronic cauda equina lesions in cats. I. The contribution of mechanical factors and sympathetic innervation to proximal sphincter dysfunction. Flood, H.D., Downie, J.W., Awad, S.A. J. Urol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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