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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Abomasum

  • Use of the D-xylose absorption test to measure abomasal emptying rate in healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows and in cows with left displaced abomasum or abomasal volvulus [1].
  • D-xylose (0.5 g/kg body weight [BW], 50% solution) was injected into the abomasum in healthy cows (group 1, 4-7 days in milk [DIM], n = 7; group 2, 90-120 DIM, n = 7; group 3, > 300 DIM, n = 7) and in cows with LDA (n = 10; group 4) [1].
  • Metabolic alkalosis occurred as a result of irreversible chloride loss, presumably into the abomasum and forestomachs [2].
  • Clinical manifestations of anasarca, left displacement of the abomasum, abortion, and incoordination appeared in a group of heifers fed a vitamin A-deficient diet [3].
  • The frequency of cows with high rectal temperatures (> or = 39.5 C) was significantly (P < 0.05) less in cows treated with oxytetracycline infusions; however, the frequency of displaced abomasum, ketosis, and mastitis was unaffected by treatment method [4].

High impact information on Abomasum

  • In many experiments there was no effect on contraction frequency until the cessation of all reticulo-ruminal contractions at which point the maximal concentration of VFA recorded in the abomasum was 28 mM, and that of lactic acid was 20 mM [5].
  • Net volumes of secretory fluids entering the abomasum and amounts of digesta flowing to the duodenum were estimated from changes in concentrations of water soluble markers (phenol red and polyethylene glycol) in digesta samples collected from an abomasal cannula [6].
  • 2. Duodenal infusion of isosmolal solutions, containing glucose, fructose or galactose, with a range of combustible energy content (0--1.46 MJ/l.) resulted in the same high rate of emptying of test meals from the stomach (abomasum) [7].
  • Gastrin-like activity in the forestomach, abomasum and intestine of the sheep [proceedings] [8].
  • Significant up-regulations under estrogen treatment could be shown in abomasum for ERalpha (P<0.05) and in rectum for ERbeta (P<0.001) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Abomasum

  • Abomasal luminal pressure in cattle with abomasal volvulus or left displaced abomasum [10].
  • Efficacy of fenbendazole, at doses of 7.5 and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight, against inhibited early 4th-stage larvae of Ostertagia ostertagi and other nematodes of the abomasum and intestinal tract, was investigated in naturally infected yearling heifers in late May 1982 [11].
  • Brucella melitensis biotype 1 was isolated in pure culture from the lungs, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach contents, abomasum and brain of an aborted caprine (Boer goat) foetus in the district of Cullinan near Pretoria [12].
  • The objectives of the studies reported on here were to isolate factors associated with arginine in abomasal fluid and to evaluate the association between arginine in abomasal fluid and left displaced abomasum (LDA), right displaced abomasum (RDA) or abomasal volvulus (AV) [13].
  • The liver and kidney damage seen in this study, in contrast to the methemoglobinemia without liver and kidney lesions previously reported when sheep were given tannic acid by oral gavage (1), suggest that, in cases of natural poisoning, tannins are not released from plant material until it enters the abomasum [14].

Biological context of Abomasum


Anatomical context of Abomasum


Associations of Abomasum with chemical compounds

  • Quantitative mRNA analysis of eight bovine 5-HT receptor subtypes in brain, abomasum, and intestine by real-time RT-PCR [25].
  • The luminal pressure was high in all cattle with AV and 49 (98%) cattle with left displaced abomasum [10].
  • D-xylose was injected into the abomasum during right flank laparotomy in cows with LDA (n = 22; group 5) and cows with AV (n = 15; group 6) [1].
  • 103Ruthenium and polyethylene glycol were given as flow markers, and flows (g/24 h) at the abomasum of organic matter (OM) and carbohydrate components were calculated [26].
  • 1. Lactating grazing ewes, fistulated at the rumen and abomasum were either not supplemented or offered, individually, 600 g/d of either pelleted, molassed sugar-beet pulp ('energy' supplement) or a pelleted 1:1 (w/w) mixture of this feed and formaldehyde-treated soya-bean meal ('protein' supplement) [27].

Gene context of Abomasum

  • The important findings include the presence of BPP-immunoreactive cells in the abomasum, pancreatic glucagon-immunoreactive cells in the proper gastric gland region, and substance P- and motilin-immunoreactive cells in the large intestine [28].
  • MCT1 protein was visualized as a 43-kDa band on immunoblots of the membrane proteins prepared from the various regions examined, and it was more highly expressed in forestomach and large intestine than in abomasum and small intestine [29].
  • Whereas the presence of adult worms rapidly induced changes in the secretory activity of the abomasum, the early larval stages had minimal effects up to the 4th day post-infection [30].
  • Its position was established by determining the distance between the margin of the left side of the abomasum and the ventral midline at two sites [19].
  • The abomasum secreted both chymosin and pepsin when the animals were fed milk [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Abomasum


  1. Use of the D-xylose absorption test to measure abomasal emptying rate in healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows and in cows with left displaced abomasum or abomasal volvulus. Wittek, T., Schreiber, K., Fürll, M., Constable, P.D. J. Vet. Intern. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Experimentally induced intestinal obstruction in sheep: paradoxical aciduria in metabolic alkalosis. Gingerich, D.A., Murdick, P.W. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Possible association of vitamin A deficiency with displacement of the abomasum in dairy heifers. Markusfeld, O. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Evaluation of the use of intrauterine infusions of oxytetracycline, subcutaneous injections of fenprostalene, or a combination of both, for the treatment of retained fetal membranes in dairy cows. Stevens, R.D., Dinsmore, R.P., Cattell, M.B. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhibition of reticulo-ruminal motility by volatile fatty acids and lactic acid in sheep. Gregory, P.C. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of duodenal cannulation on abomasal emptying and secretion in the preruminant calf. Sissons, J.W., Smith, R.H. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. A comparison of duodenal osmolality and energy content as controlling factors of gastric emptying in the calf. Bell, F.R., Webber, D.E. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Gastrin-like activity in the forestomach, abomasum and intestine of the sheep [proceedings]. Jury, D.R., McLeay, L.M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. The gastrointestinal tract as target of steroid hormone action: quantification of steroid receptor mRNA expression (AR, ERalpha, ERbeta and PR) in 10 bovine gastrointestinal tract compartments by kinetic RT-PCR. Pfaffl, M.W., Lange, I.G., Meyer, H.H. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Abomasal luminal pressure in cattle with abomasal volvulus or left displaced abomasum. Constable, P.D., St-Jean, G., Koenig, G.R., Hull, B.L., Rings, D.M. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Efficacy of fenbendazole against inhibited larvae of Ostertagia ostertagi in yearling cattle. Williams, J.C., Knox, J.W., Marbury, K.S., Kimball, M.D., Scheide, S.W., Snider, T.G., David, M.U. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. The isolation and serology of Brucella melitensis in a flock of goats in central RSA. Ribeiro, L.M., Herr, S., Chaparro, F., van der Vyver, F.H. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Arginine in liquid contents of displaced abomasal in dairy cows. Geishauser, T., Gronostay, S. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Acute intra-abomasal toxicity of tannic acid in sheep. Zhu, J., Filippich, L.J. Veterinary and human toxicology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Studies on lipid digestion in the preruminant calf. The source of lipolytic activity in the abomasum. Toothill, J., Thompson, S.Y., Edwards-Webb, J.D. Br. J. Nutr. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Synthesis and testing of glucose derivatives for feeding to ruminants. Covey, T.R., Coppock, C.E. J. Dairy Sci. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Sulfur amino acid utilization by growing steers. Campbell, C.G., Titgemeyer, E.C., St-Jean, G. J. Anim. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Evaluation of aspartate transaminase activity and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration in blood as tests for prediction of left displaced abomasum in dairy cows. Geishauser, T., Leslie, K., Duffield, T., Edge, V. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Position of the abomasum in dairy cows during the first six weeks after calving. Van Winden, S.C., Brattinga, C.R., Müller, K.E., Noordhuizen, J.P., Beynen, A.C. Vet. Rec. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Absorption of 3-nitropropanol and 3-nitropropionic acid from the digestive system of sheep. Pass, M.A., Majak, W., Muir, A.D., Yost, G.S. Toxicol. Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Movement and absorption of major minerals and water in ovine gastrointestinal tract. Sklan, D., Hurwitz, S. J. Dairy Sci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of thyroid status and thiocyanate on absorption and excretion of iodine by cattle. Miller, J.K., Moss, B.R., Swanson, E.W., Lyke, W.A. J. Dairy Sci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of abomasal or intravenous administration of arginine on milk production, milk composition, and concentrations of somatotropin and insulin in plasma of dairy cows. Vicini, J.L., Clark, J.H., Hurley, W.L., Bahr, J.M. J. Dairy Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Transport of dietary cholesterol into blood and milk of the goat. Raphael, B.C., Patton, S., McCarthy, R.D. J. Dairy Sci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Quantitative mRNA analysis of eight bovine 5-HT receptor subtypes in brain, abomasum, and intestine by real-time RT-PCR. Reist, M., Pfaffl, M.W., Morel, C., Meylan, M., Hirsbrunner, G., Blum, J.W., Steiner, A. J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Factors influencing the digestion of dietary carbohydrates between the mouth and abomasum of steers. McAllan, A.B., Smith, R.H. Br. J. Nutr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Circadian variation in abomasal digesta flow in grazing ewes during lactation. Dove, H., Milne, J.A., Sibbald, A.M., Lamb, C.S., McCormack, H.A. Br. J. Nutr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunohistochemical study of the distribution of endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus). Agungpiryono, S., Yamada, J., Kitamura, N., Yamamoto, Y., Said, N., Sigit, K., Yamashita, T. Acta anatomica. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression and distribution of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in the gastrointestinal tract of calves. Kirat, D., Inoue, H., Iwano, H., Hirayama, K., Yokota, H., Taniyama, H., Kato, S. Res. Vet. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of adult and larval Haemonchus contortus on abomasal secretion. Simpson, H.V., Lawton, D.E., Simcock, D.C., Reynolds, G.W., Pomroy, W.E. Int. J. Parasitol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Influence of age, dietary protein and weaning on calf abomasal enzymic secretion. Garnot, P., Toullec, R., Thapon, J.L., Martin, T.P., Hoang, M.T. J. Dairy Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparison of abomasal luminal gas pressure and volume and perfusion of the abomasum in dairy cows with left displaced abomasum or abomasal volvulus. Wittek, T., Constable, P.D., Fürll, M. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. The origin of urinary aromatic compounds excreted by ruminants. 3. The metabolism of phenolic compounds to simple phenols. Martin, A.K. Br. J. Nutr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  34. Proliferation in the gastric epithelium of bovine abomasum during foetal development as revealed by Ki-67 immunocytochemistry. Sommer, U., Kressin, M. Anatomia, histologia, embryologia. (2001) [Pubmed]
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