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MeSH Review

Palate, Hard

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Disease relevance of Palate, Hard


High impact information on Palate, Hard

  • In 182 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), oral mucosal ulceration occurred in 47 patients (26%), was usually painless (82%), and most often involved the hard palate (89%) [6].
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed midline sagittal T2-weighted brain MR images of 126 consecutive patients to determine the mean angle subtended by the Talairach anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line and the hard palate [7].
  • K14 immunoreactivity was localized in the epithelial basal cells of the whisker pad skin, the hard palate, the floor of the ventral meatus, and the anterior tongue that are stratified squamous epithelia, and also in basal cells of the vomeronasal, olfactory, and respiratory epithelia that are non-stratified epithelia [8].
  • Marked difference in sex ratios for non-syndromic overt CP including the hard palate (CPH) and non-syndromic overt CP of the soft palate only (CPS) (0.69 vs 1.00, p < 1.00, p < 0.05) suggested that these two conditions may be etiologically distinct, a hypothesis which is embryologically plausible [9].
  • Severe cranial nerve involvement in a patient with monoclonal anti-MAG/SGPG IgM antibody and localized hard palate amyloidosis [1].

Biological context of Palate, Hard


Anatomical context of Palate, Hard

  • The compound corpuscles were frequently encountered in the vermilion border of the lip and in the labial and buccal mucosae but were rare in the masticatory mucosa of the gingiva and hard palate [12].
  • Based on our experience with 28 patients, there is good evidence that gadolinium-enhanced MR will be useful in evaluation of skull base involvement, sinus involvement, or intracranial extension by neoplasms that involve the neck above the hard palate [13].
  • Mucosal blood flow (mBF) was obtained at the hard palate, at the tip of the tongue, on the midline of the oral vestibule, and at the lip [14].
  • In vitro formation of tissue-bound 3H was also found in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa, the hard palate, the trachea, the liver and the kidney and this was also correlated with a localization of bound 3H in these tissues in vivo [15].
  • In addition to the usual triad of bifid uvula, posterior bony notching, and diastasis of the velar musculature, there was a linear bony cleft involving only the maxillary component of the hard palate [16].

Associations of Palate, Hard with chemical compounds


Gene context of Palate, Hard

  • By contrast, the Shox2-/- mice exhibit incomplete clefts in the anterior presumptive hard palate with an intact posterior palate [22].
  • Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in the rat tongue and hard palate [23].
  • In type III collagen and fibronectin, this uneven distribution was not so distinct even in the middle hard palate region during the same period [24].
  • As results, we found an inflammation-independent strong expression of CD36 in oral epithelia with ortho- and parakeratinization, such as the oral side of the gingiva, the hard palate, and the back of the tongue [25].
  • Incubations of the lung, the nasal olfactory mucosa, the hard palate and the liver in CO- or N2-atmospheres or in the presence of the cytochrome P-450-inhibitor metyrapone showed decreased formation of tissue-bound 3H from the 3H-labelled 4-ipomeanol, indicating a role of cytochrome P-450 in the metabolism of 4-ipomeanol in the various tissues [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Palate, Hard

  • Here we emphasize that the murine hard palate is a highly differentiated sensory region, as shown by intravital staining with a styryl dye and immunocytochemistry with antibodies to vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) [26].
  • The diameter of the perforation remained unchanged (Fig. 2). The hard palate perforation was corrected with a palatoplasty 27 months after initiation of drug therapy (Fig. 3). KCZ was discontinued when serologic cure was achieved after 34 months of treatment (DI weakly positive; CIE 1 : 8; CF not measurable) [27].
  • After perfusion with 10% formalin, the whole hard palate mucosa was removed in one piece and made into histological sections according to De Castro's method for silver impregnation [28].
  • We report two cases of actual pigmented oral mucosal lesions on the hard palate secondary to minocycline therapy with the accompanying histopathology, followed by a discussion of minocycline-induced oral pigmentation and a differential diagnosis of these lesions [29].
  • The EPG patterns were classified according to certain criteria, such as the presence or absence of complete constriction between the tongue and the hard palate, and the area and location of this contact [30].


  1. Severe cranial nerve involvement in a patient with monoclonal anti-MAG/SGPG IgM antibody and localized hard palate amyloidosis. Yoshida, T., Yazaki, M., Gono, T., Tazawa, K., Morita, H., Matsuda, M., Funakoshi, K., Yuki, N., Ikeda, S. J. Neurol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. A relationship found between intra-oral sites of 4NQO reductase activity and chemical carcinogenesis. Booth, D.R. Cell and tissue kinetics. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Recurrent giant cell reparative granuloma of hard palate: role of Tc-99m-MDP three-phase bone scan. Kumar, R., Marwah, A., Gupta, R., Chaudhary, B., Sharma, S. Clinical imaging. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Accelerated DNA fragmentation of the denture-bearing mucosal epithelium in an animal model of diabetes. Maruo, Y., Sugimoto, T., Oka, M., Hara, T., Sato, T. Journal of oral rehabilitation. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Cytologic aspect of brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism. Report of a case affecting the hard palate. Pérez-Guillermo, M., Acosta-Ortega, J., García-Solano, J., Ramos-Freixá, J. Diagn. Cytopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Oral mucosal ulceration in systemic lupus erythematosus. Urman, J.D., Lowenstein, M.B., Abeles, M., Weinstein, A. Arthritis Rheum. (1978) [Pubmed]
  7. CT brain prescriptions in Talairach space: a new clinical standard. Weiss, K.L., Storrs, J., Weiss, J.L., Strub, W. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Enhanced extrinsic innervation of nasal and oral chemosensory mucosae in keratin 14-NGF transgenic mice. Takami, S., Getchell, M.L., Yamagishi, M., Albers, K.M., Getchell, T.V. Cell Tissue Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Etiological subgroups in non-syndromic isolated cleft palate. A genetic-epidemiological study of 52 Danish birth cohorts. Christensen, K., Fogh-Andersen, P. Clin. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Insulin deficiency and cell proliferation in oral mucosal epithelium of the rat. Hamilton, A.I., Blackwood, H.J. J. Anat. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of CD44 variant exons by normal oral epithelia. Oliveira, D.T., Odell, E.W. Oral Oncol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Distinct types of encapsulated sensory corpuscles in the oral mucosa of the dog: immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies. Tachibana, T., Ishizeki, K., Sakakura, Y. Anat. Rec. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of gadolinium-DTPA in the evaluation of extracranial head and neck mass lesions. Crawford, S.C., Harnsberger, H.R., Lufkin, R.B., Hanafee, W.N. Radiol. Clin. North Am. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Oral mucosal blood flow following dry ice stimulation in humans. Heckmann, J.G., Hilz, M.J., Hummel, T., Popp, M., Marthol, H., Neundörfer, B., Heckmann, S.M. Clin. Auton. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Tracing tissues with 4-ipomeanol-metabolizing capacity in rats. Larsson, P., Tjälve, H. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Submucous cleft palate with a discontinuous bony deformity. Malata, C.M., Cooter, R.D., Batchelor, A.G. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Anteroinferior distraction of the atrophic subtotal maxillary alveolus for implant placement: a case report. Horiuchi, K., Uchida, H., Yamamoto, K., Hatano, N. The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Sutural expansion osteogenesis for management of the bony-tissue defect in cleft palate repair: experimental studies in dogs. Liu, C., Song, R., Song, Y. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Evaluation of bone thickness in the anterior hard palate relative to midsagittal orthodontic implants. Henriksen, B., Bavitz, B., Kelly, B., Harn, S.D. The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. The thickness of masticatory mucosa in the human hard palate and tuberosity as potential donor sites for ridge augmentation procedures. Studer, S.P., Allen, E.P., Rees, T.C., Kouba, A. J. Periodontol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Interactions between the jaw-opening reflex and mastication. Lund, J.P., Rossignol, S., Murakami, T. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Regional regulation of palatal growth and patterning along the anterior-posterior axis in mice. Hilliard, S.A., Yu, L., Gu, S., Zhang, Z., Chen, Y.P. J. Anat. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Localization of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in the rat tongue and hard palate. Park, B.K., Cho, E.S., Lee, J.D., Oh, C., Lee, M.S., Kim, S.Z., Kim, S.H., Cho, K.W. Arch. Oral Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Localization of types I and III collagen and fibronectin in the developing mouse palatal shelves. Ohsaki, Y., Nagata, K., Kurisu, K. Acta anatomica. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. CD36 (OKM5) antigen expression on human mucosal epithelia is associated with keratinization type. Gomez, R.S., Pelka, M., Johannessen, A.C., Hornstein, O.P., von den Driesch, P. J. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Merkel cells, corpuscular nerve endings and free nerve endings in the mouse palatine mucosa express three subtypes of vesicular glutamate transporters. Nunzi, M.G., Pisarek, A., Mugnaini, E. J. Neurocytol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Hard palate perforation: an unusual finding in paracoccidioidomycosis. Castro, L.G., Müller, A.P., Mimura, M.A., Migliari, D.A. International journal of dermatology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Innervation of the palatine mucous membrane in the Cebus apella monkey. Watanabe, I.S., Konig, B. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  29. Oral mucosal pigmentation secondary to minocycline therapy: report of two cases and a review of the literature. Treister, N.S., Magalnick, D., Woo, S.B. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Cross-linguistic study of lateral misarticulation using electropalatography. Suzuki, N., Wakumoto, M., Michi, K., Dent, H., Gibbon, F., Hardcastle, W.J. European journal of disorders of communication : the journal of the College of Speech and Language Therapists, London. (1995) [Pubmed]
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