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Gene Review

Syngr1  -  synaptogyrin 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Synaptogyrin-1, p29
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Disease relevance of Syngr1

  • A 29 kD soluble rat liver nucleoprotein (p29) has increased binding affinity for the hormone responsive element (RE) of the rat haptoglobin (Hp) gene during the acute-phase reaction [1].

High impact information on Syngr1


Biological context of Syngr1

  • Deletion and mutational analysis with the use of GFP-tagged SNG-1 has defined a 38 amino acid sequence within the C terminus of SNG-1 and a single arginine in the cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane domain 2 and 3 that are required for SNG-1 localization [4].
  • These domains may represent components of signals that target synaptogyrin for endocytosis from the plasma membrane and direct synaptogyrin to synaptic vesicles, respectively [4].
  • On the basis of in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation/dephosphorylation experiments, we discuss the modulatory role of phosphate groups in view of the structure and function of p29 [1].

Anatomical context of Syngr1


Associations of Syngr1 with chemical compounds

  • Thyroxine rapidly induced the inactivation of the deiodinase and initiated the binding of p29 to F-actin [8].
  • Cyclic AMP stimulation leads to the translocation of p29 to the plasma membrane coincident with the appearance of deiodinating activity [9].
  • Catalytic activities of p29 expressed in yeast were investigated. p29 had retinal reductase activity in the presence of NADPH [10].
  • In this study, p29 cDNA was isolated by PCR with oligonucleotide probes designed from the N-terminal amino acid sequence and p29 was found to be a microsomal retinol dehydrogenase, a member of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family which metabolize hydroxysteroids and prostaglandins [10].

Enzymatic interactions of Syngr1


Regulatory relationships of Syngr1

  • Two monoclonal antibodies raised against p29 cross reacted with synaptophysin, indicating the presence of related epitopes [7].

Other interactions of Syngr1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Syngr1


  1. Structural and functional homology between the 29 kD rat liver nucleoprotein and the high mobility group 1 protein. Petrović, M., Grigorov, I., Milosavljević, T., Bogojević, D., Sekularac, S., Sevaljević, L. Mol. Biol. Rep. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Nucleotide sequence of the Rasheed rat sarcoma virus oncogene: new mutations. Rasheed, S., Norman, G.L., Heidecker, G. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure of synaptogyrin (p29) defines novel synaptic vesicle protein. Stenius, K., Janz, R., Südhof, T.C., Jahn, R. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. A conserved mechanism of synaptogyrin localization. Zhao, H., Nonet, M.L. Mol. Biol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Cellugyrin and synaptogyrin facilitate targeting of synaptophysin to a ubiquitous synaptic vesicle-sized compartment in PC12 cells. Belfort, G.M., Kandror, K.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Cellugyrin, a novel ubiquitous form of synaptogyrin that is phosphorylated by pp60c-src. Janz, R., Südhof, T.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. P29: a novel tyrosine-phosphorylated membrane protein present in small clear vesicles of neurons and endocrine cells. Baumert, M., Takei, K., Hartinger, J., Burger, P.M., Fischer von Mollard, G., Maycox, P.R., De Camilli, P., Jahn, R. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Thyroxine targets different pathways of internalization of type II iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase in astrocytes. Farwell, A.P., DiBenedetto, D.J., Leonard, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Catalytic activity of type II iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase polypeptide is dependent upon a cyclic AMP activation factor. Safran, M., Farwell, A.P., Leonard, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning and characterization of the CYP2D1-binding protein, retinol dehydrogenase. Imaoka, S., Wan, J., Chow, T., Hiroi, T., Eyanagi, R., Shigematsu, H., Funae, Y. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Cellugyrin induces biogenesis of synaptic-like microvesicles in PC12 cells. Belfort, G.M., Bakirtzi, K., Kandror, K.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Essential components for a glutamatergic synapse between Merkel cell and nerve terminal in rats. Hitchcock, I.S., Genever, P.G., Cahusac, P.M. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Analyses of polypeptides in the liver of a novel mutant (LEC rats) to hereditary hepatitis and hepatoma by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: identification of P29/6.8 as carbonic anhydrase III and triosephosphate isomerase. Nagase, T., Sugiyama, T., Kawata, S., Tarui, S., Deutsch, H.F., Taniguchi, N. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1991) [Pubmed]
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