The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

da  -  daughterless

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 5102, CG5102, DA, Da, Dmel\CG5102, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of da

  • Linear sequence analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the 149-K Da protein, a putative component of the viral RNA-directed RNA polymerase, revealed extensive homology with the vaccinia virus 147K Da DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit [1].

High impact information on da

  • We propose a model in which the emc protein negatively regulates sensory organ determination by forming heterodimers with the HLH proteins encoded by the AS-C and/or daughterless, thereby altering or interfering with their activity [2].
  • The formation of a heterodimer between the daughterless and achaete-scute T3 products may explain the similar phenotypes of mutants at these two loci and the genetic interactions between them [3].
  • A new DNA binding and dimerization motif in immunoglobulin enhancer binding, daughterless, MyoD, and myc proteins [4].
  • daughterless, a Drosophila gene essential for both neurogenesis and sex determination, has sequence similarities to myc and the achaete-scute complex [5].
  • The Drosophila sex determination gene daughterless has different functions in the germ line versus the soma [6].

Biological context of da

  • In the region upstream of the achaete gene of the AS-C, we have identified three 'E box' consensus sequences that are bound specifically in vitro by hetero-oligomeric complexes consisting of the da protein and an AS-C protein [7].
  • We provide evidence that wingless mediates both effects, at least in part, through repression of the basic helix-loop-helix protein Daughterless. daughterless is required for high proneural gene expression and furrow progression [8].
  • A survey of da RNA and protein distribution during oogenesis reveals a multiphasic expression pattern that includes both germline and soma [9].
  • Whereas the germline expression reflects da's role in progeny sex determination, the somatic ovary expression of da correlates with the gene's role during egg chamber morphogenesis [9].
  • Transcriptional activation by heterodimers of the achaete-scute and daughterless gene products of Drosophila [10].

Anatomical context of da


Physical interactions of da


Regulatory relationships of da


Other interactions of da

  • These results are summarized in a model where daughterless is a major, but probably not the only, target of wingless action in the eye [8].
  • Normal ato or da activity is required for maintenance of MAPK activation [21].
  • Zygotically expressed sisB and maternal daughterless (da) proteins are known to form heterodimers that bind E-box sites and activate transcription [16].
  • Moreover, in the ovary da- alleles exhibit dominant synergistic interactions with N or Dl mutations [9].
  • We provide evidence that Senseless and Daughterless physically interact and synergize in vivo and in transcription assays [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of da

  • We show that the noncanonical sites can mediate SISB-Da-activated transcription in cell culture [16].
  • In RT-PCR assays Schneider cells express two mesodermal markers, nautilus and DMEF2 mRNAs, as well as very low levels of daughterless mRNA but no twist [22].
  • To assay biological activities associated with the ZFE12 protein, two P-element constructs were made, each carrying a Drosophila daughterless gene that had been modified by replacing either the HLH domain or the entire C-terminus including the bHLH domain, by the equivalent domains of ZfE12 [23].
  • Using different PCR techniques (3' and 5' RACE) with (degenerate) primers based on the identified amino acid sequence of the 2989 Da peptide, a metallothionein cDNA was isolated [24].
  • After two steps of reversed-phase HPLC separation with brain extract, the structure of a 1381 Da peptide was sequenced to the GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (named crustacean-SIFamide) [25].


  1. Evidence for genetic relationship between RNA and DNA viruses from the sequence homology of a putative polymerase gene of bluetongue virus with that of vaccinia virus: conservation of RNA polymerase genes from diverse species. Roy, P., Fukusho, A., Ritter, G.D., Lyon, D. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. extramacrochaetae, a negative regulator of sensory organ development in Drosophila, defines a new class of helix-loop-helix proteins. Ellis, H.M., Spann, D.R., Posakony, J.W. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Interactions between heterologous helix-loop-helix proteins generate complexes that bind specifically to a common DNA sequence. Murre, C., McCaw, P.S., Vaessin, H., Caudy, M., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N., Cabrera, C.V., Buskin, J.N., Hauschka, S.D., Lassar, A.B. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. A new DNA binding and dimerization motif in immunoglobulin enhancer binding, daughterless, MyoD, and myc proteins. Murre, C., McCaw, P.S., Baltimore, D. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. daughterless, a Drosophila gene essential for both neurogenesis and sex determination, has sequence similarities to myc and the achaete-scute complex. Caudy, M., Vässin, H., Brand, M., Tuma, R., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. The Drosophila sex determination gene daughterless has different functions in the germ line versus the soma. Cronmiller, C., Cline, T.W. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. The Drosophila extramacrochaetae protein antagonizes sequence-specific DNA binding by daughterless/achaete-scute protein complexes. Van Doren, M., Ellis, H.M., Posakony, J.W. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Wingless blocks bristle formation and morphogenetic furrow progression in the eye through repression of Daughterless. Cadigan, K.M., Jou, A.D., Nusse, R. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. The daughterless gene functions together with Notch and Delta in the control of ovarian follicle development in Drosophila. Cummings, C.A., Cronmiller, C. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Transcriptional activation by heterodimers of the achaete-scute and daughterless gene products of Drosophila. Cabrera, C.V., Alonso, M.C. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Senseless and Daughterless confer neuronal identity to epithelial cells in the Drosophila wing margin. Jafar-Nejad, H., Tien, A.C., Acar, M., Bellen, H.J. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. senseless is necessary for the survival of embryonic salivary glands in Drosophila. Chandrasekaran, V., Beckendorf, S.K. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The interaction between daughterless and sex-lethal in triploids: a lethal sex-transforming maternal effect linking sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. Cline, T.W. Dev. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Diploidy of Drosophila imaginal cells is maintained by a transcriptional repressor encoded by escargot. Fuse, N., Hirose, S., Hayashi, S. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. scute (sis-b) function in Drosophila sex determination. Deshpande, G., Stukey, J., Schedl, P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Interpretation of X chromosome dose at Sex-lethal requires non-E-box sites for the basic helix-loop-helix proteins SISB and daughterless. Yang, D., Lu, H., Hong, Y., Jinks, T.M., Estes, P.A., Erickson, J.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Neurogenic and proneural genes control cell fate specification in the Drosophila endoderm. Tepass, U., Hartenstein, V. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. The helix-loop-helix proteins dAP-4 and daughterless bind both in vitro and in vivo to SEBP3 sites required for transcriptional activation of the Drosophila gene Sgs-4. King-Jones, K., Korge, G., Lehmann, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. The proneural gene amos promotes multiple dendritic neuron formation in the Drosophila peripheral nervous system. Huang, M.L., Hsu, C.H., Chien, C.T. Neuron (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Evolutionarily conserved positive and negative cis-acting elements control the blastoderm-specific expression of the Drosophila serendipity alpha cellularisation gene. Ibnsouda, S., Schweisguth, F., Jullien, D., Kücherer, C., Lepesant, J.A., Vincent, A. Mech. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Negative regulation of atonal in proneural cluster formation of Drosophila R8 photoreceptors. Chen, C.K., Chien, C.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. RNA interference demonstrates a role for nautilus in the myogenic conversion of Schneider cells by daughterless. Wei, Q., Marchler, G., Edington, K., Karsch-Mizrachi, I., Paterson, B.M. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. The HLH domain of a zebrafish HE12 homologue can partially substitute for functions of the HLH domain of Drosophila DAUGHTERLESS. Wülbeck, C., Fromental-Ramain, C., Campos-Ortega, J.A. Mech. Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Primary structure of a cadmium-induced metallothionein from the insect Orchesella cincta (Collembola). Hensbergen, P.J., Donker, M.H., Van Velzen, M.J., Roelofs, D., Van Der Schors, R.C., Hunziker, E., Van Straalen, N.M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (crustacean-SIFamide) in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii by topological mass spectrometry analysis. Yasuda, A., Yasuda-Kamatani, Y., Nozaki, M., Nakajima, T. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities