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Gene Review

Pax  -  Paxillin

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG18061, CG18576, CG31794, CT40481, CT42454, ...
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Disease relevance of Pax

  • A Pax gene recently described as Pax-6 is identical to the mouse homologue of the candidate aniridia gene [1].

High impact information on Pax

  • Localized signals known as 'organizers' and members of the Pax family of proto-oncogenes are both elements in this control [2].
  • All known developmental missense mutations in the paired box of mammalian Pax genes map to the N-terminal subdomain, and most of them are found at the protein-DNA interface [3].
  • Pax-6 is a member of the Pax gene class and encodes a protein containing a paired domain and a homeodomain [4].
  • Here we show that the Pax-type gooseberry-distal gene specifies row 5 neuroblast identity [5].
  • In vertebrates, genes which encode the single paired domain as well as those which express both motifs have been described as the Pax multigene family [1].

Biological context of Pax


Anatomical context of Pax

  • The cloning, genomic organization and expression of the focal contact protein paxillin in Drosophila [7].
  • In contrast to the murine Pax genes recently characterized, pax[zf-a] is not expressed in the segmented mesoderm [10].
  • The mouse Engrailed, Wnt and Pax genes, which are homologues of Drosophila segmentation genes, have provided a critical genetic entry point for dissecting the molecular and cellular control of mesencephalon and metencephalon development in vertebrates [11].
  • A second vertebrate Pax gene, pax-2, is also required during eye development and appears to play a role during closure of the choroid fissure [12].
  • The Drosophila Pax gene eye gone is required for embryonic salivary duct development [13].

Associations of Pax with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Pax

  • The five known Drosophila paired domains fall into three classes: (i) the prd,gsb-class, (ii) the Pox meso, undulated-class and (iii) the Pox neuro-class which probably includes the paired domain of the murine gene Pax 2 [16].
  • Two Pax genes, eye gone and eyeless, act cooperatively in promoting Drosophila eye development [17].
  • In this study, we showed that the Pax protein Eyg is a major effector mediating the growth promotion function of N. eyg transcription is induced by N signaling occurring at the DV border [18].
  • The Drosophila Pax gene paired encodes a transcription factor that is required for the activation of segment-polarity genes and proper segmentation of the larval cuticle, postembryonic viability and male fertility [19].
  • In agreement with this evolutionary conservation, the octapeptide motif of Pax proteins functions as a Groucho-dependent repression domain in Drosophila embryos [20].


  1. Mouse small eye results from mutations in a paired-like homeobox-containing gene. Hill, R.E., Favor, J., Hogan, B.L., Ton, C.C., Saunders, G.F., Hanson, I.M., Prosser, J., Jordan, T., Hastie, N.D., van Heyningen, V. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Growth and specification of the eye are controlled independently by Eyegone and Eyeless in Drosophila melanogaster. Dominguez, M., Ferres-Marco, D., Gutierrez-Aviño, F.J., Speicher, S.A., Beneyto, M. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Crystal structure of a paired domain-DNA complex at 2.5 A resolution reveals structural basis for Pax developmental mutations. Xu, W., Rould, M.A., Jun, S., Desplan, C., Pabo, C.O. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. PAX-6 in development and evolution. Callaerts, P., Halder, G., Gehring, W.J. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Specification of neuroblast identity in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system by gooseberry-distal. Skeath, J.B., Zhang, Y., Holmgren, R., Carroll, S.B., Doe, C.Q. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. A novel muscle LIM-only protein is generated from the paxillin gene locus in Drosophila. Yagi, R., Ishimaru, S., Yano, H., Gaul, U., Hanafusa, H., Sabe, H. EMBO Rep. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. The cloning, genomic organization and expression of the focal contact protein paxillin in Drosophila. Wheeler, G.N., Hynes, R.O. Gene (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Cooperative dimerization of paired class homeo domains on DNA. Wilson, D., Sheng, G., Lecuit, T., Dostatni, N., Desplan, C. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Lune/eye gone, a Pax-like protein, uses a partial paired domain and a homeodomain for DNA recognition. Jun, S., Wallen, R.V., Goriely, A., Kalionis, B., Desplan, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Zebrafish pax[zf-a]: a paired box-containing gene expressed in the neural tube. Krauss, S., Johansen, T., Korzh, V., Moens, U., Ericson, J.U., Fjose, A. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Engrailed, Wnt and Pax genes regulate midbrain--hindbrain development. Joyner, A.L. Trends Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Pax proteins and eye development. Macdonald, R., Wilson, S.W. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. The Drosophila Pax gene eye gone is required for embryonic salivary duct development. Jones, N.A., Kuo, Y.M., Sun, Y.H., Beckendorf, S.K. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Evolution of homeobox genes: Q50 Paired-like genes founded the Paired class. Galliot, B., de Vargas, C., Miller, D. Dev. Genes Evol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. alpha4beta1- and alpha6beta1-integrins are functional receptors for midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor. Muramatsu, H., Zou, P., Suzuki, H., Oda, Y., Chen, G.Y., Sakaguchi, N., Sakuma, S., Maeda, N., Noda, M., Takada, Y., Muramatsu, T. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Isolation of two tissue-specific Drosophila paired box genes, Pox meso and Pox neuro. Bopp, D., Jamet, E., Baumgartner, S., Burri, M., Noll, M. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Two Pax genes, eye gone and eyeless, act cooperatively in promoting Drosophila eye development. Jang, C.C., Chao, J.L., Jones, N., Yao, L.C., Bessarab, D.A., Kuo, Y.M., Jun, S., Desplan, C., Beckendorf, S.K., Sun, Y.H. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Localized Notch signal acts through eyg and upd to promote global growth in Drosophila eye. Chao, J.L., Tsai, Y.C., Chiu, S.J., Sun, Y.H. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Dual role of the Pax gene paired in accessory gland development of Drosophila. Xue, L., Noll, M. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Transcriptional repression by Pax5 (BSAP) through interaction with corepressors of the Groucho family. Eberhard, D., Jiménez, G., Heavey, B., Busslinger, M. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
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