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Gene Review

KCNK1  -  potassium channel, two pore domain...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DPK, HOHO, HOHO1, Inward rectifying potassium channel protein TWIK-1, K2P1, ...
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Disease relevance of KCNK1

  • TWIK-1 was also detected in the cytoplasm of the large neurons of vestibular ganglion and their fibers [1].
  • Finally, chronic atrial fibrillation was associated with reduced atrial expression of the potassium channel TWIK-1, suggesting potential contribution of the corresponding current to electrical remodeling [2].

Psychiatry related information on KCNK1

  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of the two cDNAs identified known genes not previously associated with the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia, including the neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) and the potassium channel human open rectifyer K+ channel (ORK) homologous open reading frame (HOHO1) [3].

High impact information on KCNK1

  • TWIK-1 channel activity is blocked by Ba2+(IC50=100 microM), quinine (IC50=50 microM) and quinidine (IC50=95 microM) [4].
  • TWIK-1 currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes are time-independent and present a nearly linear I-V relationship that saturated for depolarizations positive to O mV in the presence of internal Mg2+ [4].
  • TWIK-1 has a unitary conductance of 34 pS and a kinetic behaviour that is dependent on the membrane potential [4].
  • Dimerization of TWIK-1 K+ channel subunits via a disulfide bridge [5].
  • CONCLUSIONS: mRNAs for all 4 IRKs are detected in human atrium and ventricle, but the mRNA copy number of a low-conductance subunit (HIR) is larger in atrium and the copy number of a weakly rectifying subunit (TWIK-1) is larger in ventricle [6].

Biological context of KCNK1

  • We conclude that KCNK1 is a unique, double-pore, mammalian K channel, distantly related to the yeast channel TOK1, that is expressed in distal tubule and is a candidate to participate in renal K homeostasis [7].
  • Assignment of the human weak inward rectifier K+ channel TWIK-1 gene to chromosome 1q42-q43 [8].
  • The major focus of the study, however, was to systematically examine gene expression levels of the KCNK family of K(+)-selective leak channels [9].
  • DPK expressing dominant-negative (dn)Rac1 underwent massive apoptosis upon TCR stimulation and resulted in defective differentiation of CD4-SP cells [10].
  • Because we can strictly synthesize various DPK derivatives, which have several types of branch units, terminal cationic groups, and so on, they are expected to be a good object of study regarding the basic information on the detailed mechanism of gene transfection into cells [11].

Anatomical context of KCNK1

  • Toward this goal, we built upon previous studies of voltage-gated K(+)-selective ion channels (Kv), and expanded our analysis to K(+)-selective leak channels (KCNK), which can play a major role in setting the basic firing characteristics of spiral ganglion neurons [9].
  • Expression of TWIK-related acid sensitive K+ channels in capsaicin sensitive and insensitive cells of rat dorsal root ganglia [12].
  • Cellular localization of TWIK-1, a two-pore-domain potassium channel in the rodent inner ear [1].
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that TWIK-1 mRNA is present in the vestibular end organs, vestibular ganglion and cochlea [1].
  • Immunocytochemical experiments using confocal microscopy showed that TWIK-1 is specifically localized in 'non-sensory' cells of the inner ear, in the dark cells of the vestibule and in the strial marginal cells of the cochlea [1].

Associations of KCNK1 with chemical compounds

  • Cloning and localization of a double-pore K channel, KCNK1: exclusive expression in distal nephron segments [7].
  • Low-density lipoprotein was derived from carbamyl (carbamyl-LDL) by incubating LDL in potassium cyanate (KCNO) [13].
  • Modification of amino acid residues by KCNO treatment completely destroys binding capacity, indicating crucial involvement of lysine residues in binding of beta 2-glycoprotein I to cardiolipin [14].
  • The spectra of the oxygenated forms change little upon addition of KCNO, which is known to carbamoylate the NH2 terminals of the individual chains (Cerami and Manning, 1971) [15].
  • Some loss of 18O also occurred during an enzymic synthesis with KCNO, [18O]Pi, carbamate kinase, and pyruvate kinase [16].

Regulatory relationships of KCNK1


Other interactions of KCNK1

  • Several sub-families of the two pore domain potassium channel family have been described, including the weakly inward rectifying K+ channel (TWIK), the acid-sensitive K+ channel (TASK), the TWIK-related K+ channel (TREK) and the TWIK-related arachidonic acid stimulated K+ channel (TRAAK) [18].
  • Pharmacologically, TWIK-2 channels are distinct from TWIK-1 channels in their response to quinidine, quinine, and barium [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of KCNK1

  • Primary sequence analysis of TWIK-2 shows that it is most closely related to TWIK-1, especially in the pore-forming domains [17].
  • The major allergen of C. arizonica (Cup a 1), purified by anion exchange chromatography, was checked by immunoblotting experiments before chemical modification, in parallel with a C. arizonica extract, with potassium cyanate (KCNO) to obtain a monomeric allergoid [19].
  • Par j I allergen was then modified by reaction with potassium cyanate (KCNO), and compared with the native allergen to evaluate its allergenic potency (RAST-inhibition) and molecular weight (SDS-PAGE) [20].
  • Using RT-PCR and a semiquantitative method to detect relative differences in mRNA expression, we examined uterine smooth muscle from both pregnant and non-pregnant women for the expression of members of weak inwardly rectifying 2-pore potassium channel family (TWIK), TREK and TRAAK [21].
  • RT-PCR revealed expression of the acid-sensitive, twin P domain K+ channel TASK but not of TWIK, TREK, or the known hypoxia-sensitive Kv2.1, which was confirmed by sequencing and further PCR with primers to the coding region of TASK [22].


  1. Cellular localization of TWIK-1, a two-pore-domain potassium channel in the rodent inner ear. Nicolas, M.T., Barhanin, J., Reyes, R., Demêmes, D. Hear. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparing the global mRNA expression profile of human atrial and ventricular myocardium with high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Ellinghaus, P., Scheubel, R.J., Dobrev, D., Ravens, U., Holtz, J., Huetter, J., Nielsch, U., Morawietz, H. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification by mRNA differential display of two up-regulated genes as candidate mediators of AIDS dementia. Wildemann, B., Haas, J., Stingele, K., Storch-HagenIocher, B., McArthur, J.C., Dawson, T.M., Dawson, V.L. Mol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. TWIK-1, a ubiquitous human weakly inward rectifying K+ channel with a novel structure. Lesage, F., Guillemare, E., Fink, M., Duprat, F., Lazdunski, M., Romey, G., Barhanin, J. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Dimerization of TWIK-1 K+ channel subunits via a disulfide bridge. Lesage, F., Reyes, R., Fink, M., Duprat, F., Guillemare, E., Lazdunski, M. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential distribution of inward rectifier potassium channel transcripts in human atrium versus ventricle. Wang, Z., Yue, L., White, M., Pelletier, G., Nattel, S. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning and localization of a double-pore K channel, KCNK1: exclusive expression in distal nephron segments. Orias, M., Velázquez, H., Tung, F., Lee, G., Desir, G.V. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Assignment of the human weak inward rectifier K+ channel TWIK-1 gene to chromosome 1q42-q43. Lesage, F., Mattéi, M., Fink, M., Barhanin, J., Lazdunski, M. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Voltage-gated and two-pore-domain potassium channels in murine spiral ganglion neurons. Chen, W.C., Davis, R.L. Hear. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Rac1-mediated Bcl-2 induction is critical in antigen-induced CD4 single-positive differentiation of a CD4+CD8+ immature thymocyte line. Oda, H., Suzuki, H., Sakai, K., Kitahara, S., Patrick, M.S., Azuma, Y., Sugi, K., Kitamura, T., Kaye, J., Shirai, M. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. In vitro gene transfection using dendritic poly(L-lysine). Ohsaki, M., Okuda, T., Wada, A., Hirayama, T., Niidome, T., Aoyagi, H. Bioconjug. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of TWIK-related acid sensitive K+ channels in capsaicin sensitive and insensitive cells of rat dorsal root ganglia. Rau, K.K., Cooper, B.Y., Johnson, R.D. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Carbamylation-induced alterations in low-density lipoprotein metabolism. Hörkkö, S., Savolainen, M.J., Kervinen, K., Kesäniemi, Y.A. Kidney Int. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of binding of human beta 2-glycoprotein I to cardiolipin. Kertesz, Z., Yu, B.B., Steinkasserer, A., Haupt, H., Benham, A., Sim, R.B. Biochem. J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Circular Dichroism Studies of Cyanate-Induced Conformational Changes in Hemoglobins A and S. Simons, E.R., Hartzband, P., Whitin, J., Chapman, C. Biochemistry (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Facile oxygen exchanges of phosphoenolpyruvate and preparation of [18O]phosphoenolpyruvate. O'Neal, C.C., Bild, G.S., Smith, L.T. Biochemistry (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. TWIK-2, a new weak inward rectifying member of the tandem pore domain potassium channel family. Chavez, R.A., Gray, A.T., Zhao, B.B., Kindler, C.H., Mazurek, M.J., Mehta, Y., Forsayeth, J.R., Yost, C.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Distribution analysis of human two pore domain potassium channels in tissues of the central nervous system and periphery. Medhurst, A.D., Rennie, G., Chapman, C.G., Meadows, H., Duckworth, M.D., Kelsell, R.E., Gloger, I.I., Pangalos, M.N. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Allergenic relevance of Cupressus arizonica pollen extract and biological characterization of the allergoid. Mistrello, G., Roncarolo, D., Zanoni, D., Zanotta, S., Amato, S., Falagiani, P., Ariano, R. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Modified par j I allergen from P judaica pollen and its rate of absorption in rats. Mistrello, G., Roncarolo, D., Gentili, M., Zanoni, D., Falagiani, P. Immunol. Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of stretch-activated potassium channels in human myometrium. Tichenor, J.N., Hansen, E.T., Buxton, I.L. Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Potential identification of the O2-sensitive K+ current in a human neuroepithelial body-derived cell line. O'Kelly, I., Stephens, R.H., Peers, C., Kemp, P.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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