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Chemical Compound Review

cyanate     cyanate

Synonyms: Cyanat, ISOCYANATE, Zyanat, CPD-69, Cyanate ion, ...
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Disease relevance of cyanic acid


Psychiatry related information on cyanic acid

  • LRAP down regulated OCN and up regulated OPN in a dose- and time-response fashion, and inhibited the capacity of mineral nodule formation [5].

High impact information on cyanic acid

  • Thiocyanate was found to resemble cyanate in its inhibitory effects on [3H]thymidine incorporation and the uptake of [32P]phosphate and [3H]amino acids in transplanted tumors of the BUF rat [1].
  • At each visit, a mean of 1.3+/-0.2 mol of cyanate were incorporated per mole of hemoglobin in the carbamylated erythrocytes [6].
  • Reprotonation of the transiently deprotonated retinal Schiff base in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle is greatly slowed when the proton donor Asp-96 is removed with site-specific mutagenesis, but its rate is restored upon adding azide or other weak acids such as formate and cyanate [7].
  • Are lysosomes involved in hexose transport regulation? Turnover of hexose carriers and the activity of thiol cathepsins are arrested by cyanate and ammonia [8].
  • Incubation in cyanate prior to culture reversed the resistance of SA erythrocytes to plasmodium growth, but had no effect on SS red cell sickling or resistance [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of cyanic acid


Biological context of cyanic acid


Anatomical context of cyanic acid

  • The ability to respond to oral cyanate therapy was correlated with the amount of stainable iron in the bone marrow aspirate [17].
  • However, a rapid inhibition of protein synthesis in cultured tumor cells can be achieved by reaction of cyanate with the drug-metabolizing system of liver microsomes [3].
  • Osteoblast differentiation markers (Runx2, collagen alpha1 type I [COLI], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], osteocalcin [OCN]) were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR [18].
  • Based on our previous in situ studies, CM subclones were identified as cells expressing bone sialoprotein (BSP) and OCN transcripts, while PDL cell lines were designated as cells lacking BSP and OCN messenger RNA (mRNA) [19].
  • The novel finding of elevated serum OPG may reflect a compensatory reaction to enhanced osteoclast activity, despite the normal OCN level [20].

Associations of cyanic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of cyanic acid

  • In osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, AS-oligo affected neither BMP-2-stimulated ALP activity nor the expression of Runx2 and OCN [25].
  • The cyn operon is approximately 2600 base pairs and includes cynT, cynS, and cynX, which encode cyanate permease, cyanase, and a protein of unknown function, respectively [26].
  • Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN), molecules associated with mineralization and markers for mature osteoblastic phenotype, were expressed in AS clones before their detection in controls [27].
  • In contrast, exposure of PDL cells to BMP-2 resulted in modest expression of OCN and minimal promotion of mineralization [28].
  • Mouse OSM inhibits OCN and BSP expression in preconfluent cultures with no or progressively reduced effects at later stages, reflecting the disruption of early nodules, possibly due to the strong apoptotic action of mOSM in RC cell cultures [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of cyanic acid

  • Serum OCN, beta-CTx, OPG, and RANKL levels were measured by ELISA in 21 WD patients and in 20 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects [20].
  • We examined the association of ER alpha PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms with the 10-yr change in lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD, measured by densitometry, as well as serum OCN levels, after accounting for weight and menstrual status change [30].
  • To evaluate effects of the cAMP pathway on osteoblast differentiation, cultures were treated continuously with PTH analogs and cAMP regulators during an 18-day differentiation regime, total RNA was isolated at multiple time points, and Northern blot analysis for osteocalcin (OCN) was performed [31].
  • Cells within this heterogeneous primary population expressed type I collagen, BSP, OPN, and OCN as determined by in situ hybridization [32].
  • After treatment for 1 to 16 hr with 4 mmol/L cyanate and subcellular fractionation, the molecular weight of lysosomal cathepsin D was the same in treated and untreated cells, but more enzyme was found in lysosomes of treated cells at 8 and 16 hr [33].


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  2. The cyanase operon and cyanate metabolism. Anderson, P.M., Sung, Y.C., Fuchs, J.A. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Activation of sodium cyanate for selective inhibition of protein synthesis in cultured tumor cells. Boffa, L.C., Kozak, S., Allfrey, V.G. Cancer Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Chemical structure of carbamoylating groups and their relationship to bone marrow toxicity and antiglioma activity of bifunctionally alkylating and carbamoylating nitrosoureas. Ali-Osman, F., Giblin, J., Berger, M., Murphy, M.J., Rosenblum, M.L. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Leucine-rich amelogenin peptide: a candidate signaling molecule during cementogenesis. Boabaid, F., Gibson, C.W., Kuehl, M.A., Berry, J.E., Snead, M.L., Nociti, F.H., Katchburian, E., Somerman, M.J. J. Periodontol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Hematologic and clinical responses in patients with sickle cell anemia after chronic extracorporeal red cell carbamylation. Deiderich, D.A., Trueworthy, R.C., Gill, P., Cader, A.M., Larsen, W.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Determination of the transiently lowered pKa of the retinal Schiff base during the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin. Brown, L.S., Lanyi, J.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Are lysosomes involved in hexose transport regulation? Turnover of hexose carriers and the activity of thiol cathepsins are arrested by cyanate and ammonia. Christopher, C.W., Morgan, R.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Erythrocytic mechanism of sickle cell resistance to malaria. Friedman, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Uremia and insulin resistance: N-carbamoyl-asparagine decreases insulin-sensitive glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Kraus, L.M., Traxinger, R., Kraus, A.P. Kidney Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of bicarbonate/CO2 in the inhibition of Escherichia coli growth by cyanate. Kozliak, E.I., Fuchs, J.A., Guilloton, M.B., Anderson, P.M. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Involvement of the cynABDS operon and the CO2-concentrating mechanism in the light-dependent transport and metabolism of cyanate by cyanobacteria. Espie, G.S., Jalali, F., Tong, T., Zacal, N.J., So, A.K. J. Bacteriol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Combined effect of pH and sodium cyanate on the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and metabolism by BCNU and hyperthermia. Hu, J.J., Zirvi, K.A., Lea, M.A. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Sodium cyanate alters glutathione homeostasis in rodent brain: relationship to neurodegenerative diseases in protein-deficient malnourished populations in Africa. Tor-Agbidye, J., Palmer, V.S., Spencer, P.S., Craig, A.M., Blythe, L.L., Sabri, M.I. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Decreased life span and membrane damage of carbamylated erythrocytes in vitro. Lane, T.A., Burka, E.R. Blood (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrases I and II by N-unsubstituted carbamate esters. Parr, J.S., Khalifah, R.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Iron metabolism, sickle cell disease, and response to cyanate. Peterson, C.M., Graziano, J.H., de Ciutiis, A., Grady, R.W., Cerami, A., Worwood, M., Jacobs, A. Blood (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Ghrelin directly regulates bone formation. Fukushima, N., Hanada, R., Teranishi, H., Fukue, Y., Tachibana, T., Ishikawa, H., Takeda, S., Takeuchi, Y., Fukumoto, S., Kangawa, K., Nagata, K., Kojima, M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Parathyroid hormone-related protein regulates extracellular matrix gene expression in cementoblasts and inhibits cementoblast-mediated mineralization in vitro. Ouyang, H., McCauley, L.K., Berry, J.E., Saygin, N.E., Tokiyasu, Y., Somerman, M.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Decreased bone density, elevated serum osteoprotegerin, and beta-cross-laps in Wilson disease. Hegedus, D., Ferencz, V., Lakatos, P.L., Meszaros, S., Lakatos, P., Horvath, C., Szalay, F. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Methylisocyanate as an antisickling agent and its reaction with hemoglobin S. Lee, C.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Cyanate as an inactivator of complement proteins. Schultz, D.R., Arnold, P.I. J. Immunol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Role of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in osteoblastic differentiation of marrow stromal cells. Parhami, F., Mody, N., Gharavi, N., Ballard, A.J., Tintut, Y., Demer, L.L. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. A mass spectrometric study of metal binding to osteocalcin. Nousiainen, M., Derrick, P.J., Kaartinen, M.T., Mäenpää, P.H., Rouvinen, J., Vainiotalo, P. Chem. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Inactivation of menin, the product of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gene, inhibits the commitment of multipotential mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast lineage. Sowa, H., Kaji, H., Canaff, L., Hendy, G.N., Tsukamoto, T., Yamaguchi, T., Miyazono, K., Sugimoto, T., Chihara, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Characterization of the cyn operon in Escherichia coli K12. Sung, Y.C., Fuchs, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. S100A4: a novel negative regulator of mineralization and osteoblast differentiation. Duarte, W.R., Shibata, T., Takenaga, K., Takahashi, E., Kubota, K., Ohya, K., Ishikawa, I., Yamauchi, M., Kasugai, S. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 induces dental follicle cells to differentiate toward a cementoblast/osteoblast phenotype. Zhao, M., Xiao, G., Berry, J.E., Franceschi, R.T., Reddi, A., Somerman, M.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. GP130/OSMR is the only LIF/IL-6 family receptor complex to promote osteoblast differentiation of calvaria progenitors. Malaval, L., Liu, F., Vernallis, A.B., Aubin, J.E. J. Cell. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Estrogen receptor genotypes and their association with the 10-year changes in bone mineral density and osteocalcin concentrations. Sowers, M., Jannausch, M.L., Liang, W., Willing, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. 3',5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate activation in osteoblastic cells: effects on parathyroid hormone-1 receptors and osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. Koh, A.J., Beecher, C.A., Rosol, T.J., McCauley, L.K. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Expression of bone associated markers by tooth root lining cells, in situ and in vitro. D'Errico, J.A., MacNeil, R.L., Takata, T., Berry, J., Strayhorn, C., Somerman, M.J. Bone (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Alterations of the posttranslational processing of a lysosomal enzyme in C6 glioma cells. Snyder, D.S., Whitaker, J.N. J. Neurosci. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
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