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Gene Review

KCNJ4  -  potassium channel, inwardly rectifying...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HIR, HIRK2, HRK1, Hippocampal inward rectifier, IRK-3, ...
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Disease relevance of KCNJ4

  • Our results demonstrate that tenidap is a potent opener of hKir2.3 and suggest that it can serve as a valuable pharmacological tool for studying physiological and pathological processes involving Kir2.3 [1].
  • Among homomeric Kirs, we have found that even the most sensitive Kir1.1 and Kir2.3 have pK approximately 6.8, suggesting that they may not be capable of detecting hypocapnia [2].

High impact information on KCNJ4

  • (v) Kir2.1 and Kir2.3 channels could be coimmunoprecipitated in membrane extracts from isolated guinea pig cardiomyocytes [3].
  • The aim of our study was to find out whether heteromerization of Kir2.1 channels with wild-type Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 channels contributes to the phenotype of Andersen's syndrome [3].
  • CONCLUSIONS: mRNAs for all 4 IRKs are detected in human atrium and ventricle, but the mRNA copy number of a low-conductance subunit (HIR) is larger in atrium and the copy number of a weakly rectifying subunit (TWIK-1) is larger in ventricle [4].
  • We have isolated a human hippocampus cDNA that encodes an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, termed HIR (hippocampal inward rectifier), with strong rectification characteristics [5].
  • In this study, we showed that deletion of HIR genes, which regulate histone gene expression, synergistically reduced gene silencing at telomeres and at the HM loci in cacDelta mutants, although hirDelta mutants had no silencing defects when CAF-I was intact [6].

Biological context of KCNJ4

  • Suppression of Kir2.3 activity by protein kinase C phosphorylation of the channel protein at threonine 53 [7].
  • Kir2.3 plays an important part in the maintenance of membrane potential in neurons and myocardium [7].
  • Additional electrophysiological experiments showed that Kir2.3 channel down-regulation was blocked by the phospholipase C inhibitors, neomycin (100 microm) and D609 (200 microm) [8].
  • However, deletion of combinations of CAC and HIR genes also affected the growth rate and in some cases caused partial temperature sensitivity, suggesting that global aspects of chromosome function may be affected by the loss of members of both gene families [6].
  • In HIR B expressing cells, no significant differences in association and dissociation kinetics were observed [9].

Anatomical context of KCNJ4


Associations of KCNJ4 with chemical compounds

  • HRK1 currents were blocked by external Ba2+ and Cs+ (K(0) = 183 microM, and K(-130) = 30 microM, respectively), and internal tetraethylammonium ion (K(0) = 62 microM), but were insensitive to external tetraethylammonium ion [10].
  • The voltage dependence of spermine unblock was similar in all Kir2 channels, but the rates of unblock were approximately 7-fold and approximately 16-fold slower in Kir2.3 channels than those in Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 when measured at high and physiological extracellular K+, respectively [13].
  • 3. Also, buffering the intracellular calcium concentration with a high concentration of EGTA abolished the m1 receptor-induced inhibition of Kir2.1-Kir2.3, implicating a role for calcium in these responses [14].
  • Interestingly, preincubation with human-specific anti-insulin receptor antibody abolished the increased insulin sensitivity in glucose incorporation into glycogen in HIR delta 978 cells [15].
  • Regions of the hippocampal inward rectifier potassium channel Kir 2.3 that contact the aqueous environment were investigated by identification of native cysteine residues that confer sulfhydryl reagent sensitivity to the channel conductance [16].
  • In yeast three-hybrid studies, the Kir2.3 di-isoleucine motif does not bind the AP-2 alphaC-sigma2 hemicomplex in the way that has been recently observed for canonical di-leucine signals [17].

Physical interactions of KCNJ4

  • Likewise, outward current properties of heterologously expressed Kir2.1-Kir2.3 complexes in normal and 10 mmol/L [K+]o were similar to Kir2.1 but not Kir2 [18].

Other interactions of KCNJ4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of KCNJ4


  1. Tenidap, a novel anti-inflammatory agent, is an opener of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel hKir2.3. Liu, Y., Liu, D., Printzenhoff, D., Coghlan, M.J., Harris, R., Krafte, D.S. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. An alternative approach to the identification of respiratory central chemoreceptors in the brainstem. Jiang, C., Xu, H., Cui, N., Wu, J. Respiration physiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Heteromerization of Kir2.x potassium channels contributes to the phenotype of Andersen's syndrome. Preisig-Müller, R., Schlichthörl, G., Goerge, T., Heinen, S., Brüggemann, A., Rajan, S., Derst, C., Veh, R.W., Daut, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Differential distribution of inward rectifier potassium channel transcripts in human atrium versus ventricle. Wang, Z., Yue, L., White, M., Pelletier, G., Nattel, S. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Primary structure and characterization of a small-conductance inwardly rectifying potassium channel from human hippocampus. Périer, F., Radeke, C.M., Vandenberg, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Hir proteins are required for position-dependent gene silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the absence of chromatin assembly factor I. Kaufman, P.D., Cohen, J.L., Osley, M.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Suppression of Kir2.3 activity by protein kinase C phosphorylation of the channel protein at threonine 53. Zhu, G., Qu, Z., Cui, N., Jiang, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 regulates Kir2.3 inward rectifier K+ channels via phospholipase C and protein kinase C-delta in reactive astrocytes from adult rat brain. Perillan, P.R., Chen, M., Potts, E.A., Simard, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. The long acting human insulin analog HOE 901: characteristics of insulin signalling in comparison to Asp(B10) and regular insulin. Berti, L., Kellerer, M., Bossenmaier, B., Seffer, E., Seipke, G., Häring, H.U. Horm. Metab. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning and expression of a novel human brain inward rectifier potassium channel. Makhina, E.N., Kelly, A.J., Lopatin, A.N., Mercer, R.W., Nichols, C.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. An immunocytochemical study on the distribution of two G-protein-gated inward rectifier potassium channels (GIRK2 and GIRK4) in the adult rat brain. Murer, G., Adelbrecht, C., Lauritzen, I., Lesage, F., Lazdunski, M., Agid, Y., Raisman-Vozari, R. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Potassium channels of glial cells: distribution and function. Horio, Y. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential polyamine sensitivity in inwardly rectifying Kir2 potassium channels. Panama, B.K., Lopatin, A.N. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of a family of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir2) by the m1 muscarinic receptor and the small GTPase Rho. Rossignol, T.M., Jones, S.V. Pflugers Arch. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Mechanisms of enhanced transmembrane signaling by an insulin receptor lacking a cytoplasmic beta-subunit domain. Sasaoka, T., Langlois, W.J., Rose, D.W., Olefsky, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Inward rectifier potassium channel Kir 2.3 is inhibited by internal sulfhydryl modification. Radeke, C.M., Conti, L.R., Vandenberg, C.A. Neuroreport (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. AP-2-dependent internalization of potassium channel Kir2.3 is driven by a novel di-hydrophobic signal. Mason, A.K., Jacobs, B.E., Welling, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  18. Unique Kir2.x properties determine regional and species differences in the cardiac inward rectifier K+ current. Dhamoon, A.S., Pandit, S.V., Sarmast, F., Parisian, K.R., Guha, P., Li, Y., Bagwe, S., Taffet, S.M., Anumonwo, J.M. Circ. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Functional expression of Kir2.x in human aortic endothelial cells: the dominant role of Kir2.2. Fang, Y., Schram, G., Romanenko, V.G., Shi, C., Conti, L., Vandenberg, C.A., Davies, P.F., Nattel, S., Levitan, I. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Over-expression of dopamine D2 receptor and inwardly rectifying potassium channel genes in drug-naive schizophrenic peripheral blood lymphocytes as potential diagnostic markers. Zvara, A., Szekeres, G., Janka, Z., Kelemen, J.Z., Cimmer, C., Sántha, M., Puskás, L.G. Dis. Markers (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Plasticity of KIR channels in human smooth muscle cells from internal thoracic artery. Karkanis, T., Li, S., Pickering, J.G., Sims, S.M. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Inward rectifier K+ channel Kir2.3 is localized at the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses. Inanobe, A., Fujita, A., Ito, M., Tomoike, H., Inageda, K., Kurachi, Y. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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