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Gene Review

rho  -  rhodopsin

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: opn2, rh1, rp4, xrho
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Disease relevance of rho


High impact information on rho

  • The muscarinic receptor is homologous with the beta-adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin in both amino-acid sequence and suggested transmembrane topography [4].
  • The halobacterial phototaxis receptors sensory rhodopsin I and II (SRI, SRII) enable the bacteria to seek optimal light conditions for ion pumping by bacteriorhodopsin and/or halorhodopsin [5].
  • In transgenic tadpoles, XOtx5 and XL-Nrl directed premature and ectopic expression from the Xenopus rhodopsin promoter-GFP transgene [6].
  • XOtx5 stimulated transcription approximately 10-fold in human 293 cells co-transfected with a plasmid containing the rhodopsin promoter (-508 to +41) upstream of luciferase, similar to the approximately 6-fold stimulation with human Crx [6].
  • Certain mutations in visual arrestin yield "constitutively active" proteins that bind with high affinity to the light-activated form of rhodopsin without requiring phosphorylation [7].

Biological context of rho


Anatomical context of rho


Associations of rho with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of rho

  • When animals with rhodopsin or isorhodopsin were kept in darkness or placed on a cyclical lighting regimen for 8 days, retinal densitometry showed that either pigment was being converted to porphyropsin; significantly more porphyropsin was formed as a result of cyclical lighting than after complete darkness [9].
  • Molecular cloning of a rhodopsin gene from salamander rods [10].
  • Detection of rhodopsin mRNA in murine tissues of C57BL/6N by RT-PCR showed its presence in the eye and skin but not in the liver [18].


  1. Opsin activation as a cause of congenital night blindness. Jin, S., Cornwall, M.C., Oprian, D.D. Nat. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of rhodopsin P23H-induced retinal degeneration in a Xenopus laevis model of retinitis pigmentosa. Tam, B.M., Moritz, O.L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Light-induced, GTP-binding protein mediated membrane currents of Xenopus oocytes injected with rhodopsin of cephalopods. Ando, H., Seidou, M., Kito, Y. Vision Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning, sequencing and expression of complementary DNA encoding the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Kubo, T., Fukuda, K., Mikami, A., Maeda, A., Takahashi, H., Mishina, M., Haga, T., Haga, K., Ichiyama, A., Kangawa, K. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Electrophysiological characterization of specific interactions between bacterial sensory rhodopsins and their transducers. Schmies, G., Engelhard, M., Wood, P.G., Nagel, G., Bamberg, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Conserved transcriptional activators of the Xenopus rhodopsin gene. Whitaker, S.L., Knox, B.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Conservation of the phosphate-sensitive elements in the arrestin family of proteins. Celver, J., Vishnivetskiy, S.A., Chavkin, C., Gurevich, V.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Mutant rab8 Impairs docking and fusion of rhodopsin-bearing post-Golgi membranes and causes cell death of transgenic Xenopus rods. Moritz, O.L., Tam, B.M., Hurd, L.L., Peränen, J., Deretic, D., Papermaster, D.S. Mol. Biol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Formation, conversion, and utilization of isorhodopsin, rhodopsin, and porphyropsin by rod photoreceptors in the Xenopus retina. Witkovsky, P., Engbretson, G.A., Ripps, H. J. Gen. Physiol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular cloning of a rhodopsin gene from salamander rods. Chen, N., Ma, J.X., Corson, D.W., Hazard, E.S., Crouch, R.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Attenuation of agonist-induced desensitization of the rat substance P receptor by microinjection of inositol pentakis-and hexakisphosphates in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Sasakawa, N., Ferguson, J.E., Sharif, M., Hanley, M.R. Mol. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Biosynthesis and vectorial transport of opsin on vesicles in retinal rod photoreceptors. Papermaster, D.S., Schneider, B.G., DeFoe, D., Besharse, J.C. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Mislocalized rhodopsin does not require activation to cause retinal degeneration and neurite outgrowth in Xenopus laevis. Tam, B.M., Xie, G., Oprian, D.D., Moritz, O.L. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Defining the retinoid binding site in the rod cyclic nucleotide-gated channel. Horrigan, D.M., Tetreault, M.L., Tsomaia, N., Vasileiou, C., Borhan, B., Mierke, D.F., Crouch, R.K., Zimmerman, A.L. J. Gen. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Regional effects of sodium aspartate and sodium glutamate on protein synthesis in the retina. Anderson, R.E., Hollyfield, J.G., Verner, G.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Transgenic expression of a GFP-rhodopsin COOH-terminal fusion protein in zebrafish rod photoreceptors. Perkins, B.D., Kainz, P.M., O'Malley, D.M., Dowling, J.E. Vis. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Transgenic expression of a GFP-rhodopsin COOH-terminal fusion protein in zebrafish rod photoreceptors. Perkins, B.D., Kainz, P.M., O'Malley, D.M., Dowling, J.E. Vis. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of opsin molecule in cultured murine melanocyte. Miyashita, Y., Moriya, T., Kubota, T., Yamada, K., Asami, K. J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. (2001) [Pubmed]
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