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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Cardia


High impact information on Cardia

  • Hrs homozygous mutant embryos developed with their ventral region outside of the yolk sac, had two independent bilateral heart tubes (cardia bifida), lacked a foregut, and died around embryonic day 11 (E11) [6].
  • SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Volunteer subsample from Chicago, Ill, and Oakland, Calif, consisting of 374 white and black men and women, aged 18 to 30 years at baseline, who participated in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study [7].
  • In the current study, we examined the relationship between selenium levels measured in pretrial (1985) sera from participants and the subsequent risk of developing squamous esophageal, gastric cardia, and gastric non-cardia cancers during the trial [8].
  • Our results demonstrate that stimulation of cardia AT2 exerts a novel antipressor action by inhibiting AT1-mediated chronotropic effects, and that application of AT1 antagonists to patients with cardiovascular diseases has beneficial pharmacotherapeutic effects of stimulating cardiac AT2 [9].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that dietary intake of antioxidants measured as total antioxidant potential is inversely associated with risk of both cardia and distal cancer [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cardia

  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that adjuvant paclitaxel and cisplatin may improve survival in R0 resected patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus, GE junction, and cardia [10].
  • The present study has analysed a series of 23 formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples of Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BCA, n = 18) and non-neoplastic squamous oesophageal (n = 2) and gastric cardia mucosa (n = 3) by aCGH [11].
  • During follow-up examinations all patients underwent vital staining with methylene blue to help identify areas of intestinal metaplasia in the cardia [12].
  • All cardia biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and alcian blue at pH 2.5 for the presence of goblet cells and the body/antrum biopsies were stained with Steiner silver stain for Helicobacter pylori detection [13].
  • A case of intramural hematoma of the gastric cardia occurring in a young woman with S.L.E. and on warfarin is presented and discussed [14].

Biological context of Cardia

  • Conditions for acid catalysed luminal nitrosation are maximal at the gastric cardia [15].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The conditions favouring luminal generation of N-nitroso compounds from dietary nitrate are maximal at the most proximal cardia region of the acidic stomach and may contribute to the high incidence of mutagenesis at this site [15].
  • However, the XRCC1 26304 CC genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for gastric cardia cancer (adjusted OR=1.86, 95% CI=1.09-3.20) [16].
  • The author have previously observed autoimmunity to the non-polymorphic cytoskeletal protein vimentin in cardia transplant patients [17].
  • In the gastric cardia, again, the pattern of change of p53-positive cells in different stages of lesions paralleled the pattern of cell proliferation [18].

Anatomical context of Cardia


Associations of Cardia with chemical compounds

  • Lack of association of recreational cocaine and alcohol use with left ventricular mass in young adults. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study [24].
  • Two biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus, and cardia and stained with haematoxylin/eosin and Diff-Quick II stains [25].
  • Consequently, the median ascorbic acid to nitrite ratio was lowest at the cardia (0.3) (p<0.01) versus the mid (7.8) or distal (40) stomach [15].
  • Within the stomach, mean (SEM) nitrite concentration following nitrate was higher in the cardia (45.5 (12.7) micro M) than in the mid (7.8 (3.1)) (p<0.01) or distal (0.8 (0.6)) (p<0.1) stomach, and ascorbic acid concentration was lower at the cardia (13.0 (6.1)) than in the mid (51 (19.2)) (p<0.02) or distal (86 (29)) (p<0.01) stomach [15].
  • RESULTS: Patients treated with low-dose amiodarone exhibited a lower incidence of sudden cardia death (3.1%) and total mortality (6.1%) when compared with patients treated with placebo (6.9% and 11.2%, respectively; both P < .01; and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.011 to 0.065 and 0.013 to 0.082, respectively) [26].

Gene context of Cardia

  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed that surface mucous cells of the cardia, fundus, and antrum expressed MUC5 peptide [19].
  • TFF1 and TFF2 were expressed in all cardia samples [27].
  • TFF3 expression was significantly more frequent at the cardia (n = 15/24) than in the corpus (n = 2/26) [27].
  • Polymorphic variation of Cyp1A1 is associated with the risk of gastric cardia cancer: a prospective case-cohort study of cytochrome P-450 1A1 and GST enzymes [28].
  • Conversely, patients who had cardia carcinoma exhibited less frequent expression of MUC1 (P = 0.008) and MUC5AC (P = 0.006) compared with patients who had noncardia carcinoma [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cardia


  1. Risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia in patients with gastroesophageal reflux diseases and after antireflux surgery. Ye, W., Chow, W.H., Lagergren, J., Yin, L., Nyrén, O. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Total antioxidant potential of fruit and vegetables and risk of gastric cancer. Serafini, M., Bellocco, R., Wolk, A., Ekström, A.M. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Cardiovascular effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormone in chronic left ventricular failure in the rat. Duerr, R.L., McKirnan, M.D., Gim, R.D., Clark, R.G., Chien, K.R., Ross, J. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Inflammation and specialized intestinal metaplasia of cardiac mucosa is a manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Oberg, S., Peters, J.H., DeMeester, T.R., Chandrasoma, P., Hagen, J.A., Ireland, A.P., Ritter, M.P., Mason, R.J., Crookes, P., Bremner, C.G. Ann. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Gamma-glutamyltransferase is a predictor of incident diabetes and hypertension: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Lee, D.H., Jacobs, D.R., Gross, M., Kiefe, C.I., Roseman, J., Lewis, C.E., Steffes, M. Clin. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Hrs, a FYVE finger protein localized to early endosomes, is implicated in vesicular traffic and required for ventral folding morphogenesis. Komada, M., Soriano, P. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Association of hostility with coronary artery calcification in young adults: the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults. Iribarren, C., Sidney, S., Bild, D.E., Liu, K., Markovitz, J.H., Roseman, J.M., Matthews, K. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Prospective study of serum selenium levels and incident esophageal and gastric cancers. Mark, S.D., Qiao, Y.L., Dawsey, S.M., Wu, Y.P., Katki, H., Gunter, E.W., Fraumeni, J.F., Blot, W.J., Dong, Z.W., Taylor, P.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Cardiac-specific overexpression of angiotensin II AT2 receptor causes attenuated response to AT1 receptor-mediated pressor and chronotropic effects. Masaki, H., Kurihara, T., Yamaki, A., Inomata, N., Nozawa, Y., Mori, Y., Murasawa, S., Kizima, K., Maruyama, K., Horiuchi, M., Dzau, V.J., Takahashi, H., Iwasaka, T., Inada, M., Matsubara, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastro-esophageal junction, and cardia: phase II trial (E8296) of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Armanios, M., Xu, R., Forastiere, A.A., Haller, D.G., Kugler, J.W., Benson, A.B. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization for the detection of DNA sequence copy number changes in Barrett's adenocarcinoma. Albrecht, B., Hausmann, M., Zitzelsberger, H., Stein, H., Siewert, J.R., Hopt, U., Langer, R., Höfler, H., Werner, M., Walch, A. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Long-term follow-up of intestinal metaplasia of the gastric cardia. Morales, T.G., Camargo, E., Bhattacharyya, A., Sampliner, R.E. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Detection of cardia intestinal metaplasia: do the biopsy number and location matter? Sharma, P., McElhinney, C., Topalovski, M., Mayo, M.S., McGregor, D.H., Weston, A. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Intramural hematoma of the gastric cardia. Durward, Q.J., Cohen, M.M., Naiman, S.C. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Conditions for acid catalysed luminal nitrosation are maximal at the gastric cardia. Suzuki, H., Iijima, K., Moriya, A., McElroy, K., Scobie, G., Fyfe, V., McColl, K.E. Gut (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC1 and risk of gastric cancer in a Chinese population. Shen, H., Xu, Y., Qian, Y., Yu, R., Qin, Y., Zhou, L., Wang, X., Spitz, M.R., Wei, Q. Int. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Detection of vimentin-specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells in cardiac transplant patients. Barber, L.D., Whitelegg, A., Madrigal, J.A., Banner, N.R., Rose, M.L. Transplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Changes in p53 and cyclin D1 protein levels and cell proliferation in different stages of human esophageal and gastric-cardia carcinogenesis. Wang, L.D., Shi, S.T., Zhou, Q., Goldstein, S., Hong, J.Y., Shao, P., Qiu, S.L., Yang, C.S. Int. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression cloning of gastric mucin complementary DNA and localization of mucin gene expression. Ho, S.B., Roberton, A.M., Shekels, L.L., Lyftogt, C.T., Niehans, G.A., Toribara, N.W. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Localization of sequences controlling the spatial, temporal, and sex-specific expression of the esterase 6 locus in Drosophila melanogaster adults. Ludwig, M.Z., Tamarina, N.A., Richmond, R.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Porphyrin biosynthesis in human Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma after ingestion of 5-aminolaevulinic acid. Hinnen, P., de Rooij, F.W., Terlouw, E.M., Edixhoven, A., van Dekken, H., van Hillegersberg, R., Tilanus, H.W., Wilson, J.H., Siersema, P.D. Br. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Achalasia of the cardia in Allgrove's (triple A) syndrome: histopathologic study of 10 cases. Khelif, K., De Laet, M.H., Chaouachi, B., Segers, V., Vanderwinden, J.M. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Serum adiponectin in young adults--interactions with central adiposity, circulating levels of glucose, and insulin resistance: the CARDIA study. Steffes, M.W., Gross, M.D., Schreiner, P.J., Yu, X., Hilner, J.E., Gingerich, R., Jacobs, D.R. Annals of epidemiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Lack of association of recreational cocaine and alcohol use with left ventricular mass in young adults. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Hoegerman, G.S., Lewis, C.E., Flack, J., Raczynski, J.M., Caveny, J., Gardin, J.M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Corpus gastritis is protective against reflux oesophagitis. El-Serag, H.B., Sonnenberg, A., Jamal, M.M., Inadomi, J.M., Crooks, L.A., Feddersen, R.M. Gut (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Empiric long-term amiodarone prophylaxis following myocardial infarction. A meta-analysis. Zarembski, D.G., Nolan, P.E., Slack, M.K., Caruso, A.C. Arch. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. TFF3 expression at the esophagogastric junction is increased in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Peitz, U., Kouznetsova, I., Wex, T., Gebert, I., Vieth, M., Roessner, A., Hoffmann, W., Malfertheiner, P. Peptides (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Polymorphic variation of Cyp1A1 is associated with the risk of gastric cardia cancer: a prospective case-cohort study of cytochrome P-450 1A1 and GST enzymes. Roth, M.J., Abnet, C.C., Johnson, L.L., Mark, S.D., Dong, Z.W., Taylor, P.R., Dawsey, S.M., Qiao, Y.L. Cancer Causes Control (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Clinicopathologic and protein expression differences between cardia carcinoma and noncardia carcinoma of the stomach. Kim, M.A., Lee, H.S., Yang, H.K., Kim, W.H. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Efficacy of an anterior as compared with a posterior laparoscopic partial fundoplication: results of a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Hagedorn, C., Jönson, C., Lönroth, H., Ruth, M., Thune, A., Lundell, L. Ann. Surg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Gastroesophageal reflux in duodenal ulcer patients before and after vagotomy. Csendes, A., Oster, M., Møller, J.T., Flynn, J., Funch-Jensen, P., Overgaard, H., Amdrup, E. Ann. Surg. (1978) [Pubmed]
  32. Chemotherapy and surgery for locally advanced cancer of the cardia and fundus: phase II study with methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil. Plukker, J.T., Mulder, N.H., Sleijfer, D.T., Grond, J., Verschueren, R.C. The British journal of surgery. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Structural deterioration of prosthetic oesophageal tubes: an in vitro comparison of latex rubber and silicone rubber tubes. Branicki, F.J., Ogilvie, A.L., Willis, M.R., Atkinson, M. The British journal of surgery. (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Combination therapy with Brequinar sodium and cyclosporine synergistically prolongs hamster-to-rat cardia xenograft survival. Cosenza, C.A., Cramer, D.V., Tuso, P.J., Chapman, F.A., Wang, H.K., Makowka, L. J. Heart Lung Transplant. (1994) [Pubmed]
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