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Gene Review

IFNA3  -  interferon

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IFNA, IFNA1, IFNA2, ...
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Disease relevance of IFNA


High impact information on IFNA


Chemical compound and disease context of IFNA


Biological context of IFNA

  • It is intriguing that the smallest of the three introns is located just in the middle of the Glu-Glu sequence which is conserved among all three forms of interferon at approximately the same position [16].
  • In principle, divergent views of interferon action may be reconciled to a common mode of action by postulating that viral interference results from a newly induced or activated RNase of cellular origin and proper specificity that acts to reduce the accumulation and functional capacity of newly synthesized viral RNAs, particularly mRNA [17].
  • The promoter region is particularly G+C-rich and contains, in addition to interferon regulatory elements, potential S/W, X, and Y boxes that were originally described for mammalian class II but not class I alpha or beta 2-microglobulin genes [18].
  • To examine this response in greater detail, we studied its kinetics under the following conditions: (i) cessation of interferon treatment after different lengths of time, (ii) delayed inhibition of RNA or protein synthesis, and (iii) combinations of these treatments [19].
  • IRF-10 binds the interferon-stimulated response element site of the MHC class I promoter [20].

Anatomical context of IFNA

  • DNA from these clones specified biologically active interferon upon injection into the nuclei of Xenopus laevis oocytes [16].
  • Oligonucleotide inhibitor of protein synthesis made in extracts of interferon-treated chick embryo cells: comparison with the mouse low molecular weight inhibitor [21].
  • Because interferon can alter the program of events involved in conversion of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipose cells, it may be able to affect the regulation of eukaryotic cell differentiation [22].
  • Variously inactivated or mock interferon preparations as well as interferons from several heterologous species fail to inhibit 3T3-L1 adipocyte conversion [22].
  • Murine natural killer (NK) cell activity against lymphoma targets can be classified into three major functional phenotypes, i.e., low, inducible, and high, according to the levels of endogeneous activity and the extent of augmentation by interferon (IFN) or IFN inducers, as previously described [23].

Associations of IFNA with chemical compounds


Enzymatic interactions of IFNA


Regulatory relationships of IFNA


Other interactions of IFNA

  • The expression of IRF-4 antisense RNA eliminated formation of soft agar colonies by v-Rel and reduced the proliferation of v-Rel-transformed cells. v-Rel-transformed fibroblasts produced interferon 1 (IFN1), which inhibits fibroblast proliferation [30].
  • Genomic DNA containing the first four exons and upstream sequences of the interferon (IFN)-inducible chicken Mx gene was cloned and sequenced [31].
  • Low GBP RNA levels were found in cells treated with type I interferon, whereas very high levels were observed in cells treated with supernatant of a chicken T cell line that secretes a gamma-interferon-like activity [32].
  • To gain further insights into the cytokine network of birds, we used polymerase chain reaction technology to clone a cDNA that codes for a chicken homolog of the interferon-induced guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) [32].
  • Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was expressed by splenocytes from all infected birds between 3 and 10 dpi, associated with increasing MDV loads [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IFNA


  1. A family of genes coding for two serologically distinct chicken interferons. Sick, C., Schultz, U., Staeheli, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Selective defect of natural killer and killer cell activity against lymphomas in SJL mice: low responsiveness to interferon inducers. Kaminsky, S.G., Nakamura, I., Cudkowicz, G. J. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. RNA methylation in vaccinia virus-infected chick embryo fibroblasts treated with homologous interferon. Kroath, H., Gross, H.J., Jungwirth, C., Bodo, G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Newcastle disease virus V protein is associated with viral pathogenesis and functions as an alpha interferon antagonist. Huang, Z., Krishnamurthy, S., Panda, A., Samal, S.K. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Interferon induction by adenovirus type 12: stimulatory function of early region 1A. Toth, M.I., Arya, B., Pusztai, R., Shiroki, K., Beladi, I. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Interferon-induced nuclear signalling by Jak protein tyrosine kinases. Silvennoinen, O., Ihle, J.N., Schlessinger, J., Levy, D.E. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibition of development of Kaposi's sarcoma-related lesions by a bacterial cell wall complex. Nakamura, S., Sakurada, S., Salahuddin, S.Z., Osada, Y., Tanaka, N.G., Sakamoto, N., Sekiguchi, M., Gallo, R.C. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides act as adjuvants that switch on T helper 1 (Th1) immunity. Chu, R.S., Targoni, O.S., Krieg, A.M., Lehmann, P.V., Harding, C.V. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Interferon-induced differentiation of U937 cells. Comparison with other agents that promote differentiation of human myeloid or monocytelike cell lines. Hattori, T., Pack, M., Bougnoux, P., Chang, Z.L., Hoffman, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Interferon gamma induction during oral tolerance reduces T-cell migration to sites of inflammation. Lee, H.O., Miller, S.D., Hurst, S.D., Tan, L.J., Cooper, C.J., Barrett, T.A. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Variation of interferon induction at the bone marrow level. Studies on interferon induction in relation to natural cell-mediated cytotoxic mechanisms. Orn, A., Gidlund, M., Wigzell, H., Gresser, I. Eur. J. Immunol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Interferon induction by viruses. XVI. 2-Aminopurine blocks selectively and reversibly an early stage in interferon induction. Marcus, P.I., Sekellick, M.J. J. Gen. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Viral factors required for interferon induction by Newcastle disease virus in mouse macrophages and chicken embryo cells. Azuma, M. J. Gen. Virol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. SVMPA, a mutant of sindbis virus resistant to mycophenolic acid and ribavirin, shows an increased sensitivity to chick interferon. Rosenblum, C.I., Stollar, V. Virology (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. The combined effect of interferon and 5-FU on tumor-cell metastasis in the nude mouse. Birsic, W., D'Oro, L., Charoensiri, S., Katoh, A. Dis. Colon Rectum (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Cloning and structure of the human immune interferon-gamma chromosomal gene. Taya, Y., Devos, R., Tavernier, J., Cheroutre, H., Engler, G., Fiers, W. EMBO J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Interferon action II. Membrane-bound alkaline ribonuclease activity in chick embryo cells manifesting interferon-mediated interference. Marcus, P.I., Terry, T.M., Levine, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. The chicken beta 2-microglobulin gene is located on a non-major histocompatibility complex microchromosome: a small, G+C-rich gene with X and Y boxes in the promoter. Riegert, P., Andersen, R., Bumstead, N., Döhring, C., Dominguez-Steglich, M., Engberg, J., Salomonsen, J., Schmid, M., Schwager, J., Skjødt, K., Kaufman, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Induction and maintenance of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase in interferon-treated chicken embryo cells. West, D.K., Ball, L.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. A novel interferon regulatory factor (IRF), IRF-10, has a unique role in immune defense and is induced by the v-Rel oncoprotein. Nehyba, J., Hrdlicková, R., Burnside, J., Bose, H.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Oligonucleotide inhibitor of protein synthesis made in extracts of interferon-treated chick embryo cells: comparison with the mouse low molecular weight inhibitor. Ball, L.A., White, C.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Interferon inhibits the conversion of 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblasts into adipocytes. Keay, S., Grossberg, S.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Genetic control of the natural killer cell activity in SJL and other strains of mice. Kaminsky, S.G., Nakamura, I., Cudkowicz, G. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Virus and interferon effects on cellular prostaglandin biosynthesis. Fitzpatrick, F.A., Stringfellow, D.A. J. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibitory effects of nitric oxide and gamma interferon on in vitro and in vivo replication of Marek's disease virus. Xing, Z., Schat, K.A. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of in vitro cyclosporin. A treatment on human natural and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Shao-Hsien, C., Lang, I., Gunn, H., Lydyard, P. Transplantation (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Vinculin and 36 kDa protein are not tyrosine-phosphorylated in Rous sarcoma virus infected cells which have been treated with interferon. Strube, W., Jungwirth, C., Ziemiecki, A., Jockusch, B.M. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. The interferon-induced Mx protein of chickens lacks antiviral activity. Bernasconi, D., Schultz, U., Staeheli, P. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Interferon suppresses glutamine synthetase induction in chick embryonic neural retina. Matsuno, T., Shirasawa, N., Kohno, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Interferon regulatory factor 4 contributes to transformation of v-Rel-expressing fibroblasts. Hrdlicková, R., Nehyba, J., Bose, H.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. The chicken Mx promoter contains an ISRE motif and confers interferon inducibility to a reporter gene in chick and monkey cells. Schumacher, B., Bernasconi, D., Schultz, U., Staeheli, P. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Chicken guanylate-binding protein. Conservation of GTPase activity and induction by cytokines. Schwemmle, M., Kaspers, B., Irion, A., Staeheli, P., Schultz, U. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Differential cytokine responses following Marek's disease virus infection of chickens differing in resistance to Marek's disease. Kaiser, P., Underwood, G., Davison, F. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Interferon treatment inhibits pinocytosis. Wilcox, D.K., Whitaker-Dowling, P.A., Youngner, J.S., Widnell, C.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  35. Use of chicken cell line LSCC-H32 for titration of animal viruses and exogenous chicken interferon. Roth, S., Kaaden, O.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  36. Reduced steady-state levels of vaccinia virus-specific early mRNAs in interferon-treated chick embryo fibroblasts. Grün, J., Kroon, E., Zöller, B., Krempien, U., Jungwirth, C. Virology (1987) [Pubmed]
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