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Gene Review

Gl  -  Glued

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 150 kDa dynein-associated polypeptide, CG9206, DAP-150, DP-150, DYNA_DROME, ...
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Disease relevance of Gl

  • We used the P[Gal4] insertion strains to target expression of tetanus toxin light chain to these sensory neurons in wild-type animals and showed that this blocked the resistance reflex and produced a phenocopy of the Glued result [1].

High impact information on Gl

  • Homology of a 150K cytoplasmic dynein-associated polypeptide with the Drosophila gene Glued [2].
  • The Glued mutation is dominant, with pleiotropic developmental defects in heterozygotes and an embryonic lethal phenotype in homozygotes [3].
  • Consistent with this notion, we find that blocking retrograde axonal transport by overexpression of dominant-negative p150/Glued in neurons inhibits BMP signaling in motoneurons [4].
  • An RNAi-based screen to identify the molecular mechanisms that regulate synapse retraction identified Arp-1/centractin, a subunit of the dynactin complex [5].
  • The Glued protein is enriched within the presynaptic nerve terminal, and presynaptic expression of a dominant-negative Glued transgene enhances retraction [5].

Biological context of Gl


Anatomical context of Gl

  • In our analysis of the Glued polypeptides encoded by the dominant mutation, Glued, we identify a truncated polypeptide that fails to assemble into the wild-type 20S complex, but retains the ability to copurify with microtubules [6].
  • Taken together, these results suggest that the extension and assembly of AJs as well as determination of the rhabdomere domain in photoreceptor development are Gl dependent [9].
  • There are striking sequence and conformation similarities between the Glued alpha-helical domains and those found in certain filamentous proteins from various organisms, particularly in muscle fibers and intermediate filaments [10].
  • An affinity column with covalently bound Glued protein retained cytoplasmic dynein from S-2 cytosol [11].
  • The mechanism by which dynactin facilitates cytoplasmic dynein-dependent vesicle transport is unknown [12].

Associations of Gl with chemical compounds

  • However, when this Ser was changed to Asp or Glu, transformation and transcriptional repression by v-Rel were significantly inhibited and c-Rel showed a diffuse nuclear and cytoplasmic localization in CEF [13].
  • Immunoblotting of sucrose gradient-fractionated brain cytosol revealed p150Glued, p50, and centractin to cosediment exclusively at 20 S. Immunofluorescence microscopy using antibody to p150Glued revealed centrosomal staining, which was abolished by microtubule depolymerization [14].
  • Another class of lethal Glued mutations was induced in the normal Gl+ strain by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) [15].
  • Both Gln and Glu mutant proteins can form a clamp complex in the presence of 5'-adenylyl-beta,gamma-imidodiphosphate, albeit with a lower efficiency than the wild-type enzyme [16].
  • The mutation of Arg(414) to Leu and Glu resulted in the total loss of NO formation activity and of the heme reduction with NADPH [17].

Regulatory relationships of Gl


Other interactions of Gl


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gl


  1. Mutant molecular motors disrupt neural circuits in Drosophila. Reddy, S., Jin, P., Trimarchi, J., Caruccio, P., Phillis, R., Murphey, R.K. J. Neurobiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Homology of a 150K cytoplasmic dynein-associated polypeptide with the Drosophila gene Glued. Holzbaur, E.L., Hammarback, J.A., Paschal, B.M., Kravit, N.G., Pfister, K.K., Vallee, R.B. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Homology of a 150K cytoplasmic dynein-associated polypeptide with the Drosophila gene Glued. Holzbaur, E.L., Hammarback, J.A., Paschal, B.M., Kravit, N.G., Pfister, K.K., Vallee, R.B. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. The BMP homolog Gbb provides a retrograde signal that regulates synaptic growth at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. McCabe, B.D., Marqués, G., Haghighi, A.P., Fetter, R.D., Crotty, M.L., Haerry, T.E., Goodman, C.S., O'Connor, M.B. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Dynactin is necessary for synapse stabilization. Eaton, B.A., Fetter, R.D., Davis, G.W. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of cytoplasmic dynein function in vivo by the Drosophila Glued complex. McGrail, M., Gepner, J., Silvanovich, A., Ludmann, S., Serr, M., Hays, T.S. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Spindle pole organization in Drosophila S2 cells by dynein, abnormal spindle protein (Asp), and KLP10A. Morales-Mulia, S., Scholey, J.M. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. ZW10 helps recruit dynactin and dynein to the kinetochore. Starr, D.A., Williams, B.C., Hays, T.S., Goldberg, M.L. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Dynactin affects extension and assembly of adherens junctions in Drosophila photoreceptor development. Fan, S.S. J. Biomed. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Sequence analysis of the complete cDNA and encoded polypeptide for the Glued gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Swaroop, A., Swaroop, M., Garen, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. The product of the Drosophila gene, Glued, is the functional homologue of the p150Glued component of the vertebrate dynactin complex. Waterman-Storer, C.M., Holzbaur, E.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. p150Glued, the largest subunit of the dynactin complex, is nonessential in Neurospora but required for nuclear distribution. Tinsley, J.H., Minke, P.F., Bruno, K.S., Plamann, M. Mol. Biol. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. A protein kinase-A recognition sequence is structurally linked to transformation by p59v-rel and cytoplasmic retention of p68c-rel. Mosialos, G., Hamer, P., Capobianco, A.J., Laursen, R.A., Gilmore, T.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of a 50-kDa polypeptide in cytoplasmic dynein preparations reveals a complex with p150GLUED and a novel actin. Paschal, B.M., Holzbaur, E.L., Pfister, K.K., Clark, S., Meyer, D.I., Vallee, R.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Mutations affecting functions of the Drosophila gene glued. Garen, A., Miller, B.R., Paco-Larson, M.L. Genetics (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Identifying Lys359 as a critical residue for the ATP-dependent reactions of Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II. Hu, T., Chang, S., Hsieh, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Aromatic residues and neighboring Arg414 in the (6R)-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin binding site of full-length neuronal nitric-oxide synthase are crucial in catalysis and heme reduction with NADPH. Sagami, I., Sato, Y., Daff, S., Shimizu, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Bicaudal-D regulates COPI-independent Golgi-ER transport by recruiting the dynein-dynactin motor complex. Matanis, T., Akhmanova, A., Wulf, P., Del Nery, E., Weide, T., Stepanova, T., Galjart, N., Grosveld, F., Goud, B., De Zeeuw, C.I., Barnekow, A., Hoogenraad, C.C. Nat. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Phosphorylated seryl and threonyl, but not tyrosyl, residues are efficient specificity determinants for GSK-3beta and Shaggy. Williams, D.D., Marin, O., Pinna, L.A., Proud, C.G. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of the p150Glued component of the dynactin complex in developing and adult rat brain. Melloni, R.H., Tokito, M.K., Holzbaur, E.L. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase site (Ser312) enhances dorsal nuclear import through facilitating nuclear localization sequence/importin interaction. Briggs, L.J., Stein, D., Goltz, J., Corrigan, V.C., Efthymiadis, A., Hübner, S., Jans, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), mitochondrial DNA: genes and secondary structures for six t-RNAs. Frohlich, D.R., Robinson, A.S., Wells, M.A. Insect Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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