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Gene Review

CALB2  -  calbindin 2, 29kDa (calretinin)

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of CALB2

  • The calretinin gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and produced immunoreactive calretinin of the expected size [1].
  • In the cat ganglion cell layer, the calretinin antisera define a new, asymmetric, type of cell [2].

Psychiatry related information on CALB2

  • Thus, CR mRNA and protein appear to be constitutively expressed in NM neurons and are not affected by sensory deprivation [3].

High impact information on CALB2

  • Calretinin and calbindin are expressed in different sets of neurons throughout the brain [4].
  • The amino acid sequence of fragments from proteolytic digestion of protein 10 revealed an 86% sequence identity with a calcium-binding protein (calretinin) found in chicken retina [5].
  • Sequence analysis identifies six EF-hand calcium-binding domains and reveals 42% and 37% homology to chicken calretinin and calbindin D-28k, respectively [6].
  • The neurons derived from NPE cells express neurofilament, beta3 tubulin, RA4, calretinin, Islet1, or Hu, and a few produced long axonal projections, several millimeters in length that extend across the ciliary body [7].
  • Calretinin immunoreactivity in pineal gland of different mammals including man [8].

Biological context of CALB2


Anatomical context of CALB2


Associations of CALB2 with chemical compounds

  • Bacterially expressed calretinin was purified with successive ammonium-sulfate precipitation, DEAE chromatography, hydroxyapatite chromatography, Sephadex G-75 chromatography and Mono-Q chromatography [1].
  • Weak gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity was observed only in a few of the trkA-IR horizontal cells, whereas the overlap of calretinin and GABA immunoreactivities was 100% [16].
  • We found that the large glucagon-expressing neurons were immunoreactive for substance P, neurofilament, Pax6, AP2alpha, HuD, calretinin, trkB, and trkC [17].
  • Comparison between the lack of calmodulin and the presence of calretinin, belonging to the same calcium-binding protein family, in chick pinealocytes raises the hypothesis about a possible role of calretinin in melatonin synthesis [18].

Regulatory relationships of CALB2

  • The number of calretinin-expressing cells that were generated was increased approximately 20-fold with forced expression of NeuroD [19].
  • Similar to the bullwhip cells, the conventional glucagon-expressing amacrine cells were immunoreactive for calretinin, HuD, Pax6, and AP2alpha [17].

Other interactions of CALB2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CALB2

  • The distribution of calretinin and calbindin mRNAs in chick tissues has been mapped using RNA gel blots and in situ hybridization [4].
  • To contribute to the knowledge of the presence of CR-positive cells in the pineal parenchyma of rat and other mammalian including man, we performed immunocytochemistry on pineal glands of gerbils, rats, goats, cows, and humans, using a CR anti-serum [8].
  • To confirm it was actually CR that was demonstrated, we performed Western Blot analyses [8].
  • Ischaemia for 45 min causes a change in the nature of the normal calretinin immunoreactivity, an obliteration of the ChAT immunoreactivity and a drastic reduction in the b-wave of the electroretinogram after 3 days of reperfusion [22].
  • Native calretinin was purified from chick brainstem using the same method as for the recombinant protein but with an added affinity chromatography step [23].


  1. Calcium binding by chick calretinin and rat calbindin D28k synthesised in bacteria. Cheung, W.T., Richards, D.E., Rogers, J.H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Calbindin and calretinin localization in retina from different species. Pasteels, B., Rogers, J., Blachier, F., Pochet, R. Vis. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Calretinin expression in the chick cochlear nucleus after deafferentation. Stack, K.E., Code, R.A. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Calretinin: a gene for a novel calcium-binding protein expressed principally in neurons. Rogers, J.H. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Isolation, partial amino acid sequence, and immunohistochemical localization of a brain-specific calcium-binding protein. Winsky, L., Nakata, H., Martin, B.M., Jacobowitz, D.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. An invertebrate calcium-binding protein of the calbindin subfamily: protein structure, genomic organization, and expression pattern of the calbindin-32 gene of Drosophila. Reifegerste, R., Grimm, S., Albert, S., Lipski, N., Heimbeck, G., Hofbauer, A., Pflugfelder, G.O., Quack, D., Reichmuth, C., Schug, B. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Growth factors induce neurogenesis in the ciliary body. Fischer, A.J., Reh, T.A. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Calretinin immunoreactivity in pineal gland of different mammals including man. Novier, A., Nicolas, D., Krstic, R. J. Pineal Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure of chick chromosomal genes for calbindin and calretinin. Wilson, P.W., Rogers, J., Harding, M., Pohl, V., Pattyn, G., Lawson, D.E. J. Mol. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Structure of the human brain calcium-binding protein calretinin and its expression in bacteria. Parmentier, M., Lefort, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Calbindin-D28k, calretinin, and recoverin immunoreactivities in developing chick pineal gland. Bastianelli, E., Pochet, R. J. Pineal Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Transient expression of calretinin during development of chick cerebellum. Comparison with calbindin-D28k. Bastianelli, E., Pochet, R. Neurosci. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Two calcium-binding proteins mark many chick sensory neurons. Rogers, J.H. Neuroscience (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Peripheral projections of calretinin-immunoreactive primary sensory neurons in chick hindlimbs. Duc, C., Barakat-Walter, I., Droz, B. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Calretinin and calbindin in the retina of the developing chick. Ellis, J.H., Richards, D.E., Rogers, J.H. Cell Tissue Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Heterogeneity of horizontal cells in the chicken retina. Fischer, A.J., Stanke, J.J., Aloisio, G., Hoy, H., Stell, W.K. J. Comp. Neurol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization of glucagon-expressing neurons in the chicken retina. Fischer, A.J., Skorupa, D., Schonberg, D.L., Walton, N.A. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Calmodulin immunoreactivity in the chicken pineal gland: comparison with calbindin-D28k, calretinin, and S100. Bastianelli, E., Pochet, R. Anat. Rec. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. NeuroD induces the expression of visinin and calretinin by proliferating cells derived from toxin-damaged chicken retina. Fischer, A.J., Wang, S.Z., Reh, T.A. Dev. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Parvalbumin and calretinin in the avian thymus. Király, E., Celio, M.R. Anat. Embryol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Insulin and fibroblast growth factor 2 activate a neurogenic program in Müller glia of the chicken retina. Fischer, A.J., McGuire, C.R., Dierks, B.D., Reh, T.A. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. In vivo and in vitro experiments show that betaxolol is a retinal neuroprotective agent. Osborne, N.N., Cazevieille, C., Carvalho, A.L., Larsen, A.K., DeSantis, L. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Chick calretinin: purification, composition, and metal binding activity of native and recombinant forms. Stevens, J., Rogers, J.H. Protein Expr. Purif. (1997) [Pubmed]
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