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Gene Review

PTGS1  -  prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1...

Canis lupus familiaris

Synonyms: COX-1, COX-3, COX1, PGHS-1
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Disease relevance of PTGS1

  • Orally administered celecoxib (COX-2 inhibition) or high-dose aspirin (HDA) (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition) did not alter time to occlusive thrombus formation compared with controls (celecoxib 77.7+/-7.2 minutes, HDA 72.0+/-18.5 minutes, control 93.0+/-21.8 minutes) [1].

High impact information on PTGS1

  • In human, COX-3 mRNA is expressed as an approximately 5.2-kb transcript and is most abundant in cerebral cortex and heart [2].
  • PCOX-1 proteins additionally contain an in-frame deletion of exons 5-8 of the COX-1 mRNA [2].
  • This intron contains an ORF that introduces an insertion of 30-34 aa, depending on the mammalian species, into the hydrophobic signal peptide that directs COX-1 into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope [2].
  • Intron 1 is conserved in length and in sequence in mammalian COX-1 genes [2].
  • Treatment of cells with either a COX-1-selective inhibitor, SC-560, or COX-2-selective inhibitors, SC-58125 or NS-398, inhibited basal and UTP-stimulated cAMP levels [3].

Biological context of PTGS1

  • Cyclooxygenase selectivity was expressed as a ratio of the concentration of an NSAID that inhibited 50% of the activity (IC50) of COX-1 to the IC50 of COX-2 [4].
  • Canine clotting blood was used to test for inhibition of COX-1 activity and whole blood stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to test for inhibition of COX-2 activity [5].

Anatomical context of PTGS1

  • Ex vivo inhibition of cyclooxygenase product synthesis (prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2) in whole blood was used as an indicator of activity for the constitutive COX-1 isoform, although inhibition of the synthesis of these mediators in the chamber exudate during an inflammatory process is believed to represent COX-2 inhibition [6].
  • Development of these agents for veterinary use would be facilitated by the convenience of using a canine cell line as a model system to screen COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor activities in vitro [7].
  • Suppression of concentrations of PGE2 in the gastric mucosa and TXB2 in blood by aspirin administration is consistent with activity against COX-1 [8].
  • PROCEDURE: COX activity was evaluated in the presence and absence of 4 NSAID (meloxicam, tolfenamic acid, carprofen, and ketoprofen), using a canine monocyte/macrophage cell line that constitutively expresses COX-1, but can be induced to express COX-2 when incubated with lipopolysaccharide [7].
  • RESULT: COX-1, but not COX-2, was constitutively expressed in normal urinary bladder epithelium; however, COX-2 was expressed in neoplastic epithelium in primary tumors and in metastatic lesions of all 21 dogs and in new proliferating blood vessels in 3 dogs [9].

Associations of PTGS1 with chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Meloxicam acts in vivo in dogs as a COX-1 sparing drug on target tissues by sparing gastric PGE2 synthesis while retaining antiprostaglandin effects within inflamed joints [8].
  • Meloxicam, in contrast, had a minimal effect on functions mediated by COX-1 [8].
  • RESULTS: Ketoprofen, aspirin, and etodolac were COX-1 selective [4].
  • These data are consistent with the view that the effects of indomethacin on RBF are a consequence of inhibition of COX-1 activity [10].
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicate that carprofen and deracoxib act in vivo on target tissues as COX-1-sparing drugs by sparing gastric PGE1 and PGE2 synthesis and production of TXB2 by platelets [11].

Other interactions of PTGS1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTGS1


  1. Effects of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on vascular responses and thrombosis in canine coronary arteries. Hennan, J.K., Huang, J., Barrett, T.D., Driscoll, E.M., Willens, D.E., Park, A.M., Crofford, L.J., Lucchesi, B.R. Circulation (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. COX-3, a cyclooxygenase-1 variant inhibited by acetaminophen and other analgesic/antipyretic drugs: cloning, structure, and expression. Chandrasekharan, N.V., Dai, H., Roos, K.L., Evanson, N.K., Tomsik, J., Elton, T.S., Simmons, D.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Key role for constitutive cyclooxygenase-2 of MDCK cells in basal signaling and response to released ATP. Ostrom, R.S., Gregorian, C., Drenan, R.M., Gabot, K., Rana, B.K., Insel, P.A. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Cyclooxygenase selectivity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in canine blood. Streppa, H.K., Jones, C.J., Budsberg, S.C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Pharmacokinetic profile and in vitro selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition by nimesulide in the dog. Toutain, P.L., Cester, C.C., Haak, T., Metge, S. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Evaluation of the antiinflammatory activity of a dual cyclooxygenase-2 selective/5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, RWJ 63556, in a canine model of inflammation. Kirchner, T., Argentieri, D.C., Barbone, A.G., Singer, M., Steber, M., Ansell, J., Beers, S.A., Wachter, M.P., Wu, W., Malloy, E., Stewart, A., Ritchie, D.M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. In vitro effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on cyclooxygenase activity in dogs. Kay-Mugford, P., Benn, S.J., LaMarre, J., Conlon, P. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. In vivo effects of meloxicam and aspirin on blood, gastric mucosal, and synovial fluid prostanoid synthesis in dogs. Jones, C.J., Streppa, H.K., Harmon, B.G., Budsberg, S.C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in dogs. Khan, K.N., Knapp, D.W., Denicola, D.B., Harris, R.K. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Differential effect of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor versus indomethacin on renal blood flow in conscious volume-depleted dogs. Black, S.C., Brideau, C., Cirino, M., Belley, M., Bosquet, J., Chan, C.C., Rodger, I.W. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. In vivo effects of carprofen, deracoxib, and etodolac on prostanoid production in blood, gastric mucosa, and synovial fluid in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis. Sessions, J.K., Reynolds, L.R., Budsberg, S.C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Cyclooxygenase-2 mediates mucin secretion from epithelial cells of lipopolysaccharide-treated canine gallbladder. Kim, H.J., Lee, S.K., Kim, M.H., Seo, D.W., Min, Y.I. Dig. Dis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
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