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Gene Review

VEZF1  -  vascular endothelial zinc finger 1

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of VEZF1

  • We describe the isolation of two recombinant lambda phages, each containing genomic DNA fragments encoding both the major adult alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs of X. laevis [1].
  • Hemin increased beta globin synthesis two- to threefold in chick erythrocyte-NA neuroblastoma heterokaryons; however, total globin synthesis was still less than 10% that of L6 heterokaryons [2].
  • Specific factor conferring nuclease hypersensitivity at the 5' end of the chicken adult beta-globin gene [3].
  • To overcome this problem, we investigated whether the HS4 chromatin insulator from the chicken beta-globin locus control region could protect a retrovirus vector from position effects [4].
  • To test the appropriate expression and inducibility of chicken globin genes in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells, an adult chicken beta-globin gene construct was stably transfected [5].

High impact information on VEZF1

  • We have identified a 42 bp fragment of the chicken beta-globin insulator that is both necessary and sufficient for enhancer blocking activity in human cells [6].
  • A 5' element of the chicken beta-globin domain serves as an insulator in human erythroid cells and protects against position effect in Drosophila [7].
  • In this paper we show that the beta-globin enhancer stimulates transcription of both genes. epsilon-Globin is, however, inappropriately regulated since it is expressed in both embryonic and adult red blood cells [8].
  • We have studied the properties of a factor or factors that bind selectively to the 5' flanking region of the chicken adult beta-globin (beta A-globin) gene [9].
  • Comparison with the sequences of the chicken rho-globin and beta-globin genes reveals the presence of two regions that are identical or nearly identical in epsilon and rho [10].

Biological context of VEZF1

  • Although both BGP1 and Sp1 require Zn2+ for their DNA-binding activity, these proteins differ in their binding-site specificities, chromatographic properties, and molecular weights [11].
  • The minimal binding sequence is seven dG residues; methylation interference studies show that each of these residues contacts BGP1 [12].
  • Electron microscopic visualization of R loop structures generated by hybridization of globin RNA to lambda C beta G1 demonstrates that both globin genes contain major intervening sequences about 800 bp long, similar to those present in mammalian beta-globin genes [13].
  • This shift in phenotype correlates with an increase in hemoglobin mRNA specific to both adult and embryonic alpha and beta globin [14].
  • A 200 base pair region at the 5' end of the chicken adult beta-globin gene is accessible to nuclease digestion [15].

Anatomical context of VEZF1


Associations of VEZF1 with chemical compounds

  • Correlation between histone lysine methylation and developmental changes at the chicken beta-globin locus [19].
  • The promoter region of the chicken adult beta-globin gene contains a sequence of 16 deoxyguanosine residues located at a nucleosome boundary in tissues where the gene is inactive [11].
  • We also find that the region between the beta-globin locus and the folate receptor gene is fully methylated and condensed at this stage of differentiation [20].
  • The inhibitory action of the RCE was not specific to the beta globin gene since the Herpes thymidine kinase and Xenopus 5S RNA gene transcript levels were similarly reduced [21].
  • The globin mRNA is polyadenylylated and is translated into adult chicken alpha A-, alpha D-, and beta-globin polypeptides [22].

Physical interactions of VEZF1

  • Gel-mobility-shift assays with 23 bp oligonucleotides containing the GATA-binding site (AGATAA) of the histone H5 enhancer or of the beta-globin enhancer showed that the GATA sequence was sufficient for the formation of at least five complexes [23].

Regulatory relationships of VEZF1

  • The beta-globin and histone H5 genes were more accessible than the repressed vitellogenin and ovalbumin genes to aflatoxin B1 modification in mature and immature erythroid chromatin [24].

Other interactions of VEZF1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VEZF1


  1. Internal organization of the major adult alpha- and beta-globin genes of X. laevis. Patient, R.K., Elkington, J.A., Kay, R.M., Williams, J.G. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Pattern of chick gene activation in chick erythrocyte heterokaryons. Linder, S., Zuckerman, S.H., Ringertz, N.R. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Specific factor conferring nuclease hypersensitivity at the 5' end of the chicken adult beta-globin gene. Emerson, B.M., Felsenfeld, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. A chromatin insulator protects retrovirus vectors from chromosomal position effects. Emery, D.W., Yannaki, E., Tubb, J., Stamatoyannopoulos, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. 5'-flanking sequences mediate butyrate stimulation of embryonic globin gene expression in adult erythroid cells. Glauber, J.G., Wandersee, N.J., Little, J.A., Ginder, G.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. The protein CTCF is required for the enhancer blocking activity of vertebrate insulators. Bell, A.C., West, A.G., Felsenfeld, G. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. A 5' element of the chicken beta-globin domain serves as an insulator in human erythroid cells and protects against position effect in Drosophila. Chung, J.H., Whiteley, M., Felsenfeld, G. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Developmental regulation of beta-globin gene switching. Choi, O.R., Engel, J.D. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Interaction of specific nuclear factors with the nuclease-hypersensitive region of the chicken adult beta-globin gene: nature of the binding domain. Emerson, B.M., Lewis, C.D., Felsenfeld, G. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Gene evolution in the chicken beta-globin cluster. Roninson, I.B., Ingram, V.M. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. An erythrocyte-specific protein that binds to the poly(dG) region of the chicken beta-globin gene promoter. Lewis, C.D., Clark, S.P., Felsenfeld, G., Gould, H. Genes Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Properties of BGP1, a poly(dG)-binding protein from chicken erythrocytes. Clark, S.P., Lewis, C.D., Felsenfeld, G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation of the chicken beta-globin gene and a linked embryonic beta-like globin gene from a chicken DNA recombinant library. Dodgson, J.B., Strommer, J., Engel, J.D. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Temperature-sensitive changes in the structure of globin chromatin in lines of red cell precursors transformed by ts-AEV. Weintraub, H., Beug, H., Groudine, M., Graf, T. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. A 200 base pair region at the 5' end of the chicken adult beta-globin gene is accessible to nuclease digestion. McGhee, J.D., Wood, W.I., Dolan, M., Engel, J.D., Felsenfeld, G. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. The ovalbumin gene is associated with the nuclear matrix of chicken oviduct cells. Robinson, S.I., Nelkin, B.D., Vogelstein, B. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Loss of transcriptional activity of a transgene is accompanied by DNA methylation and histone deacetylation and is prevented by insulators. Pikaart, M.J., Recillas-Targa, F., Felsenfeld, G. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Cell-specific expression of heat shock proteins in chicken reticulocytes and lymphocytes. Morimoto, R., Fodor, E. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Correlation between histone lysine methylation and developmental changes at the chicken beta-globin locus. Litt, M.D., Simpson, M., Gaszner, M., Allis, C.D., Felsenfeld, G. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. An insulator element and condensed chromatin region separate the chicken beta-globin locus from an independently regulated erythroid-specific folate receptor gene. Prioleau, M.N., Nony, P., Simpson, M., Felsenfeld, G. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. A chicken red cell inhibitor of transcription associated with the terminally differentiated state. Walmsley, M.E., Buckle, R.S., Allan, J., Patient, R.K. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Reactivation of chicken erythrocyte nuclei in heterokaryons results in expression of adult chicken globin genes. Linder, S., Zuckerman, S.H., Ringertz, N.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Multisubunit erythroid complexes binding to the enhancer element of the chicken histone H5 gene. Penner, C.G., Davie, J.R. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Gene-specific differences in the aflatoxin B1 adduction of chicken erythrocyte chromatin. Delcuve, G.P., Moyer, R., Bailey, G., Davie, J.R. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. The 5'-HS4 chicken beta-globin insulator is a CTCF-dependent nuclear matrix-associated element. Yusufzai, T.M., Felsenfeld, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Complete amino acid sequence of the major early embryonic beta-like globin in chickens. Chapman, B.S., Tobin, A.J., Hood, L.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Heat shock-induced translational control of HSP70 and globin synthesis in chicken reticulocytes. Banerji, S.S., Theodorakis, N.G., Morimoto, R.I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Selective unfolding of erythroid chromatin in the region of the active beta-globin gene. Kimura, T., Mills, F.C., Allan, J., Gould, H. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Core histone hyperacetylation co-maps with generalized DNase I sensitivity in the chicken beta-globin chromosomal domain. Hebbes, T.R., Clayton, A.L., Thorne, A.W., Crane-Robinson, C. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of adult chicken betal globin cDNA. Richards, R.I., Shine, J., Ullrich, A., Wells, J.R., Goodman, H.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. Association of the 5'HS4 sequence of the chicken beta-globin locus control region with human EF1 alpha gene promoter induces ubiquitous and high expression of human CD55 and CD59 cDNAs in transgenic rabbits. Taboit-Dameron, F., Malassagne, B., Viglietta, C., Puissant, C., Leroux-Coyau, M., Chéreau, C., Attal, J., Weill, B., Houdebine, L.M. Transgenic Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
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